Pre Home Assignments

Learning Activity 1: Read passage & Meditate: Should read the passage in this unit minimum 3 times. After reading each paragraph, close your eyes & think about the paragraph content for a few minutes. Also do the preparations for the Live Class Lesson Activities.

Learning Activities for Live Class Session:

Learning Activity 1: Guest Class relates with First Aid: Arrange a guest class regarding First Aid treatment. Invite an English fluent Health Nurse/ Health worker or a trained person for this. He/ She presents the class in English with different examples clearing the doubts of trainees & presenting demos. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Other trainees take the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 2: Share Experience: Two pupils sit face to face and share their experiences relating with First Aid treatment done by them or their other family members. Then change pairs and continue with other students.

Learning Activity 3: Group Discussion: Arrange a Group Discussion like in TV. All students are participating in the discussion.
Round 1: Purpose and objectives of learning and practicing the content in this theory unit
Round 2: How to apply the knowledge and the ideas in this unit in your life, career and in society.

Learning Activity 4: Learning activity as per students’ choice. Conduct a learning activity as per the choice of lesson activities coordinating group.

Self-Home Assignments & with classmates:

Learning Activity 1: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about First Aid and its importance in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 2: Pair TV Interview with a Health Worker: One takes the role of a health worker or first aid expert and the other one takes the role of an anchor. Sub: First Aid and its applications for major issues. Faculty prepare the list & put it in the group.

Individual & pair learning activities as Post Home Assignments:

Learning Activity 1: Make a First Aid Kit in your house by including essential things.

What is First Aid:

We all need help at times in our lives. We all have accidents now and again and we all get hurt. When we are injured or suddenly unwell, what we want and need is someone to help us – someone who knows what to do. First aid is all about helping people in situations like this.

Staying safe: This section is all about staying safe. Sometimes accidents happen and sometimes when we help others we can get hurt ourselves. If we can spot dangers, we are less likely to get hurt. There are hazards and dangers all around us, but you can spot them by doing these three simple things:
a. Look and listen for danger.
b. Decide if an area is safe for you.
c. Make an area safe.
d. If a victim is in contact with electricity DO NOT TOUCH them until the source of electricity has been shut off.

Calling 100 for Police Help, 101 for Fire Help, 102 for Ambulance Help.

a. Be prepared to tell them: Your exact location, including building name, and room number, your name and phone number you are calling from and details of your emergency and what happened.

Reporting Crimes to Police
ALL crimes or suspected cases of child abuse or molestation must be reported to ISU DPS as per law. Violence, threats or implied threats of violence, and intimidation (verbal or physical acts intended to frighten or coerce) impede the goal of providing a safe environment and will not be tolerated.
Evacuate the building in a calm and orderly manner. Use a fire extinguisher – if you have been trained and if you can do so without risk to yourself.

What’s in a First Aid Kit?

Kits vary in contents but most kits have the following items:
a. band-aids / adhesive bandages
b. gauze pads and tape
c. scissors, cold pack
d. wound bandage / compress
e. eye pads / eye wash solution
f. first aid / burn cream
g. antibiotic ointment
h. face shield or barrier mask for providing CPR
i. forceps / tweezers
j. disposable thermometers

Universal Precautions and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

l. Universal Precautions also known as Standard Precautions is a way to limit the spread of disease by preventing contact with blood borne pathogens. Blood borne pathogens include but are not limited to: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
To follow Universal Precautions correctly means whether or not you think a victim’s blood or body fluid is infected, you act as if it is. All blood and body fluids are considered hazardous material and should be treated as if infectious.
PPE includes disposable gloves, gowns, lab coats, face shields, eye protection and pocket masks / facial barriers. “Universal Precautions and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) continued.

To reduce the risk of infections:
a. Wear disposable gloves when giving first aid. Use a face shield or mask when performing CPR.
b. Remove gloves properly – without touching the bare skin, grasp the inside palm of your gloves with the fingers of the opposite hand and pull gloves off inside out – repeat with 2nd hand and dispose of gloves in an appropriate manner.
c. Clean your hands with an alcohol based hand sanitizer. If not available, wash well with soap, and water. “ASSESS: the situation – is it safe?

Emergency Action Steps: Adult / Child Choking/Severe Airway Blockage:

1. Victim is responsive:
2. Quickly ask, “Are you choking?”
3. If the victim nods yes, or is unable to talk, speak, or cough – act quickly.
4. Stand behind the victim5. Make a fist and place the thumb side of that hand against the victim’
s abdomen, just above the navel and below the ribs. Grasp fist with the other hand.
6. Quickly thrust inward and upward into the abdomen
7. Repeat thrusts until the object is expelled or the victim becomes unresponsive.

Adult / Child Choking/Severe Airway Blockage
1. Begin chest thrusts as you would with CPR. Each time the airway is opened, look for the object in the victim’s throat and if you can see it, remove it – being careful not to lodge the object further into the victim’s throat.
2. Continue chest thrusts until EMS / Paramedics arrive, or the victim shows signs of breathing /responsiveness.

Basic First Aid Instructions- Minor Wounds
Minor wounds include abrasions, lacerations, punctures and incisions. The most significant issues to consider with any open wound are control of bleeding and infection.
Signs and Symptoms:
a. Break, cut or opening in the skin
b. Bleeding – may be minor, moderate or severe
c. Bruising and pain
d. Infection
e. Progressing shock

First Aid:
a. If bleeding, apply direct pressure with a clean cloth or absorbent pad.
b. Wash area with antibacterial
c. soap and clean until there appears to be no foreign matter in the wound
d. Cover area with an adhesive bandage or gauze wrap.

Victims with shock may stop responding.
Shock develops when not enough blood flows to the vital organs of the body.

Common causes of shock are:
a. Severe bleeding
b. Nervous system injuries
c. Heart attack or other heart problem
d. Severe burns
e. Severe allergic reaction
f. Dehydration

Signs and Symptoms:
a. Dizziness, faint or weak feeling
b. Rapid, shallow breathing
c. Anxiety, restlessness, agitation or confusion
d. Cool and clammy to the touch
e. Pale or greyish skin
f. Thirst
g. Nausea or vomiting

First Aid:
a. Help people lie on their backs.
b. Keep the victim lying flat with feet slightly elevated if possible.
c. Cover the person to keep them warm, but prevent overheating.
d. Ensure an open airway for victims and adequate breathing. Monitor victims’ and administer CPR if necessary.

Bruising: Caused by broken blood vessels leaking blood under the skin. Bruising can be minimal or large and severe.
a. Pain and swelling
b. Discoloration: new bruising will be dark purple / older bruising will fade to greenish yellow

First Aid:
a. Apply ice to injury to reduce pain, bleeding and swelling
b. To prevent frostbite to the injured area, place a thin towel or cloth between the skin and ice. Limit ice application to 20 minutes on, 20 off

Crush Injury: Occurs when a body part is subjected to a high degree of force or pressure. Example: smashed fingers in door.
Signs and Symptoms:
a. Pain and swelling
b. Discoloration and sometimes deformity

First Aid:
a. Apply ice just as you would with a bruising injury
b. If pain is severe and does not lessen with ice or there is decreased sensation, weakness, or paleness of the skin in the affected area, seek emergency care.

Severe Bleeding? Emergency Action Steps:

a. Assess the scene – if the scene is unsafe or becomes unsafe, get out! Only move the patient if absolutely necessary.
b. Assess the victim – Tap shoulder, shout name. No response??
c. Attend to any life threatening problems. “Apply Direct Pressure.
d. Apply Pressure Bandage:
e. Rip or cut away clothing so wounds can be seen.
f. Place an absorbent pad directly over the wound.
g. Apply firm, direct pressure over the wound.
h. The victim can assist if they are able.
i. Wrap a conforming bandage securely over the pad to maintain pressure and hold the gauze in place.
j. Bandage should be loose enough so a finger can slip under the bandage.

Severe Bleeding continued

a. As the first dressings become soaked with blood, apply more pads, dressings and maintain firm, direct pressure.
b. Do not remove the first dressings; just continue to add more if soaking through continues.
c. Ensure an open airway for the victim and adequate breathing.
d. Keep the bleeding under control.
e. Prevent chilling or overheating.
f. Keep the victim lying flat with feet slightly elevated if possible.

Bites and Stings

Bites and stings that could require first aid care can occur from a wide variety of sources. Most only cause minor discomfort and can easily be treated by a first aid provider. However bites and stings from venomous snakes, insects or animals can cause intense pain and swelling. Bites from humans and animals such as dogs, cats, bats etc. can cause severe injury and infection, including tetanus and rabies. Some people have severe allergic reactions to bites or stings that can be life threatening. In these cases, the most important first aid measure is rapid access to advanced emergency medical care. General Signs and Symptoms associated with bites and stings:
a. redness
b. swelling
c. pain
d. itching
e. nausea
f. problems breathing

General First Aid for bites and stings:

a. remove jewellery and constrictive clothing
b. wash the area with soap and clean water
c. cover the area with an adhesive bandage or gauze wrap
d. apply ice if needed to reduce pain and swelling

Eye Injuries

Eye injuries can range from minor irritations to severe and sight threatening. Injuries are frequently caused by objects in the eye, burns, and blunt force injuries. Any of these conditions or situations can lead to permanent loss of vision. What can you do to prevent an eye injury? Wear protective eyewear during risky activities. Wear safety glasses with side shields anytime you might be exposed to flying particles, objects or dust. Wear goggles when exposed to chemicals — even if you’re just a bystander. Protective eyewear counts during sports, too. Any sport featuring a ball, racket or flying object poses a potential risk of eye injury. Take caution with chemicals and cleaners. Carefully read the labels of chemicals and household cleaning supplies, such as bleach, before using them. Don’t mix products. Keep all chemicals and sprays in safe areas.

Eye Injuries and First Aid

a. Signs and Symptoms:
b. Pain, redness, stinging
c. Burning, itching
d. Bleeding/bruising in or around eyes
e. Sensitivity to light
f. Decreased or double vision
g. Loss of vision
h. Something actually visibly stuck in eye

First Aid Interventions:

a. Rinse eye with saline solution or tap water if saline is not available.
b. Do not try to remove object
c. Do not allow the victim to rub or apply pressure on the injured eye
d. Cover the eye lightly with a gauze pad or clean cloth
e. Seek medical attention

Nosebleeds and First Aid

Most nosebleeds are not serious and can be handled by a first aid responder. Mostly it will stop on their own or with simple first aid actions. In some cases nosebleeds can indicate a more serious condition which may require ongoing medical attention. If the nose bleed is related to an injury, the victim should be assisted in finding medical assistance urgently. Some people may be taking medications that make them more prone to bleeding. These people should also seek care urgently.

Nosebleeds and First Aid:

a. Signs and symptoms to monitor:
b. Bleeding from one or both nostrils

Bleeding in the back of the throat, causing the victim to vomit blood

a. First Aid Interventions:
b. Sit upright and lean forward. By remaining upright, you reduce blood pressure in the veins of your nose. This discourages further bleeding. Sitting forward will help you avoid swallowing blood, which can irritate your stomach. Make the victim spit out blood that collects in the back of the throat or mouth.
c. Pinch the nose firmly. Use your thumb and index finger to pinch your nostrils shut. Breathe through your mouth. Continue to pinch for five to 10 minutes. Pinching sends pressure to the bleeding point on the nasal septum and often stops the flow of blood.
d. To prevent re-bleeding, don’t pick or blow your nose and don’t bend down for several hours after the bleeding episode. During this time remember to keep your head higher than the level of your heart.

Diabetes and Diabetic Emergencies

Diabetes is a chronic condition that causes an imbalance of blood sugar and insulin. Emergencies can occur if someone’s blood sugar becomes very high or very low. Several factors can contribute to hypoglycemia in people with diabetes, including taking too much insulin or other diabetes medications, skipping a meal, or exercising more or at a higher intensity than usual.

Hypoglycaemia (Low Blood Sugar)

Signs and Symptoms: First Aid Interventions:
a. Shakiness
b. Dizziness
c. Sweating
d. Hunger
e. Irritability or moodiness
f. Anxiety or nervousness
g. Headache, vision problems
h. Drowsiness
i. Seizures
j. Five to six pieces of hard candy
k. Four ounces of fruit juice or regular — not diet — soda
l. One tablespoon of sugar, jelly or honey
m. Three glucose tablets (available without a prescription at most pharmacies)

Heat Exhaustion & Heat Stroke

Causes of heat exhaustion include exposure to high temperatures, particularly when combined with high humidity, and strenuous physical activity. Without prompt treatment, heat exhaustion can lead to heatstroke, a life-threatening condition. Fortunately, heat exhaustion is preventable. Heatstroke occurs if your body temperature continues to rise. At this point, emergency treatment is needed. In a period of hours, untreated heat stroke can cause damage to your brain, heart, kidneys and muscles. These injuries get worse the longer treatment is delayed, increasing your risk of very serious complications.

Heat Exhaustion First Aid

Signs and Symptoms: First Aid Interventions:
a. Cool, moist skin with goosebumps when in the heat
b. Heavy sweating
c. Faintness
d. Dizziness
e. Fatigue
f. Weak, rapid pulse
g. Low blood pressure upon standing
h. Muscle cramps
i. Nausea
j. Headache
k. Stop all activity and rest
l. Move to a cooler place
m. Drink cool water or sports drinks
n. Contact your doctor if your signs or symptoms worsen or if they don’t improve within one hour. Seek immediate medical attention if your body temperature reaches 104°F (40°C) or higher.

Heat Stroke First Aid Signs and Symptoms:

First Aid Interventions:

a. High body temperature. A body temperature of 104°F (40°C) or higher is the main sign of heatstroke.
b. A lack of sweating. In heat stroke brought on by hot weather, skin will feel hot and dry to the touch.
c. Nausea and vomiting. Victims may feel sick to their stomach or vomit.
d. Flushed skin. Skin may turn red as body temperature increases.
e. Rapid breathing. Breathing may become rapid and shallow.
f. Racing heart rate. Pulse may significantly increase because heat stress places a tremendous burden on the heart to help cool the body.
g. Headache. Victims may experience a throbbing headache.
h. Confusion. Victims may have seizures, hallucinate, or have difficulty speaking or understanding what others are saying.
i. If you think a person may be experiencing heatstroke, seek immediate medical help.
j. Help the person move to a shaded location and remove excess clothing.
k. Place ice packs or cold, wet towels on the person’s head, neck, armpits and groin.
l. Mist the person with water while a fan is blowing on him or her.

A well-stocked first-aid kit can help you respond effectively to common injuries and emergencies. Keep at least one first-aid kit in your home, office and one in your car. Store your kits in easy to retrieve locations that are out of the reach of young children. You can make a difference for someone when you apply your knowledge of First Aid.

10 Basic First Aid Procedures

Getting someone through a medical crisis
First aid is the emergency care a sick or injured person gets. In some cases, it may be the only care someone needs, while in others, it may help them until paramedics arrive or they are taken to the hospital. The best way to prepare for these events is to get official first aid training, but until you are able to do so, you can learn some basic life-saving steps.
This article will explain the steps of first aid for various emergencies. It will also give first aid examples and explain when further care may be needed.
When someone is unconscious, or unresponsive, a basic principle of first aid is ABC:
•Airway: If someone’s not breathing, clear their airway.
•Breathing: If the airway is clear and they’re still not breathing, provide rescue breathing.
•Circulation: Perform chest compressions to keep blood circulating, as well as rescue breathing. If the person is breathing but unresponsive, check their pulse. If their heart has stopped, provide chest compressions.
A simpler version of the ABCs is:
•Awake? If not, try to wake them. If they don’t wake up, make sure someone is calling the Medical Emergency number and move on to B.
•Breathing? If not, start rescue breathing and chest compressions. If so, move on to C.
•Continue care: Follow instructions from 911 on, or continue treatment until an ambulance arrives.
Some courses also include D and E:
•D can stand for disability assessment, deadly bleeding, or automated external defibrillator (AED), which is a device that shocks the heart so it begins beating.
•E stands for examination—evaluating the person for signs of injury, bleeding, allergies, or other problems once you know they’re breathing and their heart is beating.

1. CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, is one of the most important emergency medical procedures. If a person is in cardiac arrest, and their heart is not beating, they could die. Performing CPR or using an AED could save their life.2
AEDs are available in many public areas and businesses. These devices are simplified for use even if you have never been trained. CPR training will include how to use an AED.
First Aid for Suspected Cardiac Arrest
When you suspect someone is in cardiac arrest:
1. Get someone to call the Emergency Medical Aid number.
2. Start chest compressions immediately. Push down hard and fast in the center of the chest, allowing the chest to come back up naturally between compressions. Continue until someone with more training has arrived.
3. If you’re trained in CPR, use chest compressions and rescue breathing.
4. Use an AED if available. However, don’t delay chest compressions. If possible, have someone else find the AED.

Basics of CPR
Taking a formal CPR class will help you become familiar with chest compressions, rescue breathing, and AED use. To take a class, contact the American Red Cross or search for local or online options.
Regardless of severity, almost all bleeding can be controlled. If severe bleeding is allowed to continue, it can lead to shock and eventually death. While it is important to stop bleeding, remember the ABCs and check first for something more serious.
To get an accurate assessment of what type of bleeding it is, look at its color and how it’s leaving the body.
•Capillaries: Bleeding from capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels, looks like a trickle and will usually stop on its own.
•Veins: A consistent blood flow and blood that’s a dark red color is most likely coming from the veins. It can range from mild to severe bleeding.
•Arteries: Arteries carry a lot of oxygen and are the largest blood vessels. This type of injury usually causes bright red blood to spurt. Blood can be lost really quickly from this type of bleed.
Whenever possible, wash your hands when treating a wound to help prevent infection. Wear disposable gloves if they’re available. This can protect you from diseases like viral hepatitis or HIV/AIDS.

2. Bleeding

First Aid for Bleeding
If you’re faced with bleeding:
1. Rinse the wound with water if possible.
2. Cover the wound with a gauze or cloth (towel, blanket, clothing, whatever’s available).
3. Apply direct pressure to stop the blood flow and encourage clotting, which is when blood naturally thickens to stop blood loss.
4. If possible, elevate the bleeding body part above the heart.
5. Don’t remove the cloth if it becomes soaked through, but add more layers if needed. Removing the first layer will interfere with the clotting process and result in more blood loss.
6. Once bleeding has stopped, apply a clean bandage.
When to Get Help for Bleeding
Get medical help if:
•The wound is deep
•The wound has widely separated sides
•The injury oozes blood after pressure has been applied
•The injury is from an animal or human bite
•The injury is a puncture, burn, or electrical injury
•You suspect arterial bleeding
•Blood is soaking through bandages
•Bleeding won’t stop
Make sure someone keeps treating the person during the drive to the hospital or while you wait for an ambulance.
Should You Use a Tourniquet?
A tourniquet, a band or device that limits blood flow, should ideally be used by a trained professional. However, if direct pressure isn’t working, a tourniquet can be used to help save the injured individual’s life.

3. Choking

Choking due to a throat obstruction, or blockage, is a serious situation that can lead to unconsciousness or even death. Methods are different for babies.
How to Help a Choking Infant
Before you start first aid on someone for choking, make sure they really need it. If they’re coughing or talking, they aren’t choking. Signs of choking include:
•Gagging, gasping, or wheezing
•Inability to talk or make noise
•Turning blue in the face
•Grabbing at the throat
•Waving arms
•Appearing panicked
If the person is conscious and old enough to respond properly, ask if they’re choking before you start first aid.
First Aid for Choking
To perform the Heimlich maneuver:
1. Stand behind the person and lean them slightly forward
2. Put your arms around their waist
3. Clench a fist and place it between their navel and rib cage
4. Grab your fist with your other hand
5. Pull the clenched fist sharply backward and upward under their rib cage in 5 quick thrusts. Repeat until the object is coughed up.
For someone who’s obese or pregnant, perform thrusts around the chest instead of the abdomen.
If someone is unconscious:
1. Place them on their back and kneel over them
2. Place the heel of your hand slightly above the navel
3. Place your other hand on top of it
4. Give quick upward thrusts to dislodge the obstruction
Choking Treatment and Prevention

4. Burns

The first step to treating a burn is to stop the burning process.11 Chemicals need to be cleaned off. Electricity needs to be turned off. Heat needs to be cooled down with running water. Those with sunburns need to be covered up or go inside.
The severity of a burn is based on its depth and size:
•First-degree burn: This affects only the outer layer of skin and causes redness and swelling. It is considered a minor burn.
•Second-degree burn: This affects two layers of skin and causes blistering, redness, and swelling. It is considered a major burn if it’s more than three inches wide or on the face, hands, feet, genitals, buttocks, or over a major joint.
•Third-degree burn: This affects deeper layers of skin and causes white or blackened skin that may be numb. It is always considered a major burn.
Major burns need emergency medical attention. Call Medical Emergency number or get someone else to call once the burning process has been stopped.
First Aid for Burns
Take these first aid steps:
1. Flush the burned area with cool running water for several minutes. Do not use ice.
2. Apply a light gauze bandage.
3. Take ibuprofen or acetaminophen for pain relief if necessary.
4. Do not break any blisters that may have formed.
On minor burns, you may apply an ointment, like aloe vera, to it.

5. Blisters

Blisters are designed to protect the damaged skin underneath while it heals. If the blister is small, unbroken, and not very painful, it’s best to leave it alone. Cover it to prevent rubbing that could cause it to swell and possibly burst. Popping a blister may let in bacteria that could lead to an infection.
If you have a compromised immune system, you have a greater risk of infection and shouldn’t drain a blister on your own. Your healthcare provider may want to drain it to protect you from infection.
First Aid for Blisters
If the blister is large or painful, follow these steps:
1. Wash your hands and sterilize a needle with alcohol.
2. Make small punctures at the edge of the blister.
3. Gently push the fluid out.
4. Apply antibiotic ointment.
5. Bandage it.
6. If possible, take steps to protect the area from further rubbing or pressure.
If the blister broke open on its own:
1. Gently wash with clean water only.
2. Smooth the flap of broken skin over the newly exposed skin, unless it’s dirty, torn, or pus has gathered under it.
3. Apply petroleum jelly.
4. Bandage it.
Change the bandage any time it gets wet. Take it off when you go to bed so the area can air out.

6. Broken Bone or Fracture

Any injury to your limbs, hands, and feet needs to be treated as a broken bone until an X-ray can confirm whether it’s broken. While broken bones, or fractures, do need medical treatment, they don’t all require an emergency trip to the hospital.
Call Medical Emergency number immediately if:
•The person is bleeding profusely, is unresponsive, not breathing, or has numerous injuries
•You suspect a fracture or other serious injury to the spinal column, head, hip, pelvis, or thigh—the person should not be moved except by trained medical personnel
•A broken bone protrudes from the skin, known as an open or compound fracture
•The area below an injured joint feels cold and clammy or becomes bluish
•You can’t immobilize the injury well enough to transport the person
After using first aid, go to urgent care or contact your healthcare provider for guidance.
First Aid for Suspected Fracture
Take these steps for a suspected fracture:
1. Don’t try to straighten it.
2. For a limb, use a splint and padding to keep it still.
3. Put a cold pack on the injury, with a barrier between it and the skin to prevent tissue damage. If ice is all that’s available, put it in a plastic bag and wrap it in a shirt or towel.
4. If it’s a limb, elevate it.
5. Give anti-inflammatory drugs like Advil (ibuprofen) or Aleve (naproxen) for pain.
Research has shown that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Advil and Aleve can slow bone healing. However, short-term NSAID use appears to have little or no effect on healing.

7. Sprains

A sprain is an injury to ligaments, which are connective tissues that hold bones, cartilage, and joints together. Sprains are generally caused by twisting a joint, which over-stretches or tears the ligament. Symptoms of a sprain are similar to those of a broken bone so an X-ray will likely be used for clarity. Common places for a sprain are the ankle and wrist.20
The first thing to do is make sure the injured person stops any unnecessary activity so they don’t make the injury worse. Then you can begin first aid.
First Aid for Sprains
For a suspected sprain:
1. Keep the limb still
2. Apply a cold pack
3. Elevate the injured part if you can do so safely
4. Use NSAIDs for pain
See your healthcare provider soon for further treatment.
Sprains often don’t require emergency treatment. However, you should get immediate medical care if the injured person has:
•Severe pain with movement or touch
•Ongoing inability to bear weight on the injured joint
•Increased bruising
•Numbness or pins-and-needles near the sprain
•Signs of infection
•Little or no improvement during the first week

8. Nosebleeds

The biggest cause of a nosebleed is digital trauma, also known as picking your nose. Other causes may include:
•Dry or hot air
•High altitudes
•Chemical fumes that irritate the nasal passage
•Colds and allergies
•Blowing your nose hard or often
•Trauma to the nose
•Deviated septum, which is crooked nasal cartilage
•Nasal polyps or tumors, which are non-cancerous or cancerous growths in the nasal passage and sinuses
•Bleeding disorders, including hemophilia and leukemia
•High blood pressure
•Frequent use of nasal sprays, decongestants, and antihistamines
•Blood thinners such as Coumadin (warfarin)
•Cocaine and other snorted drugs
Many of these things dry out or damage the delicate nasal membranes in your nostrils, causing them to become crusty and burst when irritated.23
First Aid for Nosebleed
The first aid for nosebleed includes:
1. Lean slightly forward, not back.
2. Pinch the nose just below the bridge, high enough that the nostrils aren’t pinched closed.
3. Check after five minutes to see if bleeding has stopped. If not, continue pinching and check after another 10 minutes.
4. You can also apply a cold pack to the bridge of the nose while pinching.
See a healthcare provider if:
•You get frequent nosebleeds
•You have anemia symptoms like weakness, faintness, fatigue, and pale skin
•You’re taking blood thinners
•You have a clotting disorder
•You just started a new medication
•You also have unusual bruising
When to Seek Emergency Care for Nosebleed
A nosebleed needs emergency medical treatment when:
•It won’t stop even after more than 15 minutes of direct pressure
•You’re losing a lot of blood
•You have a hard time breathing
•You’ve swallowed a lot of blood and vomited it up
•You’ve had a serious injury or a blow to the head

9. Frostbite

Frostbite occurs when the body’s tissues freeze deeply in the cold. This is the opposite of a burn, but the damage it does to your skin is almost identical.
First Aid for Frostbite
Treating frostbite is a delicate procedure of gradual warming. If at all possible, this should be done by a medical professional. If that’s not possible, or while awaiting an ambulance, you can begin first aid:
1. Get out of the cold.
2. Immerse the affected area in warm water (98 to 105 F) for 20 to 30 minutes.
3. Do not rub the affected area.
4. Do not use sources of dry heat, like a heating pad or fire air.
5. For fingers and toes, after they’re warm, put clean cotton balls between them.
6. Loosely wrap the area with bandages.
7. Use Tylenol or Advil for pain.
8. Get medical attention as soon as possible.
For small areas of minor frostbite, you can also warm the area with skin-to-skin contact.
Get emergency treatment if the skin is hard and begins turning white.

10. Bee Stings

Bee stings may be painful for some people, but they can also be deadly for those who are allergic to bee venom.
First Aid for Bee-Venom Allergy
If the person who was stung has a known allergy to bee stings, use an EpiPen to prevent anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is is a life-threatening allergic reaction which may include symptoms like hives, swelling, chest pain, confusion, sweating, blue lips and nails, and difficulty breathing.
An allergy can develop at any time, so it’s important to always watch for signs of an allergic reaction after a bee sting. A bee sting can cause pain, redness, and swelling. In an allergic reaction, look for:
•Swelling away from the area that was stung
•Hives, which are raised, large red or skin-colored bumps
•Signs of anaphylaxis
Call emergency number immediately or get the person to the hospital if any of these signs appear. In someone without a known bee allergy, watch for signs of an allergy while performing first aid.

First Aid for Bee Stings
Follow these steps for bee sting first aid:
1. Get the stinger out any way you can to keep it from injecting more venom. The method doesn’t matter—it’s most important to do it quickly.
2. Wash the area with soap and water.
3. Use a cold pack to reduce swelling at the site, but don’t apply ice directly to the skin.
4. Use an allergy medication, or antihistamine, like Benadryl to reduce swelling and itching.
5. Use Advil or Tylenol for pain.

Module Developed by: Baba Alexander

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