SYLLABUS OF THEORY 4 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, NUTRITION, NURSING & WELFARE OF CHILDREN. Unit 7 LAWS & RIGHTS RELATED WITH CHILDREN & JOURNALISM DAY 15-16

Pre Home Assignments

Learning Activity 1: Read Passage & Meditate: Should read the passage in this unit minimum 3 times. After reading each paragraph, close your eyes & think about the paragraph content for a few minutes. Also do the preparations for the Live Class Lesson Activities.

Learning Activities for Live Class Session:

Learning Activity 1: Guest Class: Arrange an Advocate/ subject expert’s class in English about children’s rights & related laws. Invite an English fluent guest who completed LLB or LLM to the centre for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc. If possible, include Cybercrime & its safety related topic also in the class.

Learning Activity 2: Panel Discussion: Buddies & Bullying: Arrange a Panel Discussion by forming trainees into 6 member groups regarding Buddies & bullying. After discussion, the program anchor should tell the findings of discussion to the mass. The findings from the discussion should be written in two A4 pages.

Learning Activity 3: Guest Class: Arrange a Journalist’s class in English about Journalism & how to write news. Invite an English fluent guest who completed Print Media Journalism Degree or Diploma to the centre for giving a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 4: Group Discussion: Arrange a Group Discussion like in TV. All students are participating in the discussion.
Round 1: Purpose and objectives of learning and practicing the content in this theory unit
Round 2: How to apply the knowledge and the ideas in this unit in your life, career and in society.

Learning Activity 5: Learning activity as per students’ choice. Conduct a learning activity as per the choice of lesson activities coordinating group.

Self-Home Assignments & with classmates:

Learning Activity 1: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about UN Charter regarding child rights in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 2: Pair TV Interview with an Advocate: One takes the role of a specialist in legal matters and the other one takes the role of an anchor. Sub: Legislations to protect the rights of children in India. Faculty prepare the list & put it in the group.

Learning Activity 3: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech regarding journalism and its principles in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Individual & pair learning activities as Post Home Assignments:

Learning Activity 1: News Writing Practice: Write 5 different news about programs organized in your class in the Theory Assignment Book by checking the similar news published in different Newspapers.

Child Related Legislations in India.

• THE JUVENILE JUSTICE (CARE AND PROTECTION OF CHILDREN) ACT, 2015.
• Amendment Proposed in Immoral Traffic Prevention Act 1956
Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child.
• National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding.
• Notification on Infant Milk Substitutes.
• The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution Amendment Act, 2003
• The infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and infant Foods regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution Act, 1992
• Notification issued by the MWCD regarding enforcement of IMS Amendment Act
• The infant Milk Substitute Act, 2003
• The Infant Milk Substitutes Act, 1992
• The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
• The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929
• The Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Amendment Act, 2006
• National Commission for protection of Child Rights Rules, 2006 in English
• The Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005
• The Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children Rules 2007 in English.
• The Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children Act 2000 The Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children Amendment Act 2006.
• Implementation of the JJ Act. DO NO.1-22004-CW II.
• The Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children Act 2011 and Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children, Amendment Rules, 2011, notified on 9th Sep 2011 and 26th Dec 2011.
• Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Bill, 2011.
• Amendment to the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012
• The Gazette of India dated 09-11-2012 regarding coming into force of the Protection of the Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012
• The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Rules, 2012
• The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012.
• Model Guidelines under Protection of Children from Sexual Offences POCSO ACT, 2012.

UN CHARTER REGARDING CHILD RIGHTS

Article 1 (definition of the child)
Everyone under the age of 18 has all the rights in the Convention.

Article 2 (non-discrimination)
The Convention applies to every child without discrimination, whatever their ethnicity, gender, religion, language, abilities or any other status, whatever they think or say, whatever their family background.

Article 3 (best interests of the child)
The best interests of the child must be a top priority in all decisions and actions that affect children.

Article 4 (implementation of the Convention)
Governments must do all they can to make sure every child can enjoy their rights by creating systems and passing laws that promote and protect children’s rights.

Article 5 (parental guidance and a child’s evolving capacities)
Governments must respect the rights and responsibilities of parents and carers to provide guidance and direction to their child as they grow up, so that they fully enjoy their rights. This must be done in a way that recognises the child’s increasing capacity to make their own choices.

Article 6 (life, survival and development)
Every child has the right to life. Governments must do all they can to ensure that children survive and develop to their full potential.

Article 7 (birth registration, name, nationality, care)
Every child has the right to be registered at birth, to have a name and nationality, and, as far as possible, to know and be cared for by their parents.

Article 8 (protection and preservation of identity)
Every child has the right to an identity. Governments must respect and protect that right, and prevent the child’s name, nationality or family relationships from being changed unlawfully.

Article 9 (separation from parents)
Children must not be separated from their parents against their will unless it is in their best interests (for example, if a parent is hurting or neglecting a child). Children whose parents have separated have the right to stay in contact with both parents, unless this could cause them harm.

Article 10 (family reunification)
Governments must respond quickly and sympathetically if a child or their parents apply to live together in the same country. If a child’s parents live apart in different countries, the child has the right to visit and keep in contact with both of them.

Article 11 (abduction and non-return of children)
Governments must do everything they can to stop children being taken out of their own country illegally by their parents or other relatives, or being prevented from returning home.

Article 12 (respect for the views of the child)
Every child has the right to express their views, feelings and wishes in all matters affecting them, and to have their views considered and taken seriously. This right applies at all times, for example during immigration proceedings, housing decisions or the child’s day-to-day home life.

Article 13 (freedom of expression)
Every child must be free to express their thoughts and opinions and to access all kinds of information, as long as it is within the law.

Article 14 (freedom of thought, belief and religion)
Every child has the right to think and believe what they choose and also to practise their religion, as long as they are not stopping other people from enjoying their rights. Governments must respect the rights and responsibilities of parents to guide their child as they grow up.

Article 15 (freedom of association)
Every child has the right to meet with other children and to join groups and organisations, as long as this does not stop other people from enjoying their rights.

Article 16 (right to privacy)
Every child has the right to privacy. The law should protect the child’s private, family and home life, including protecting children from unlawful attacks that harm their reputation.

Article 17 (access to information from the media)
Every child has the right to reliable information from a variety of sources, and governments should encourage the media to provide information that children can understand. Governments must help protect children from materials that could harm them.

Article 18 (parental responsibilities and state assistance)
Both parents share responsibility for bringing up their child and should always consider what is best for the child. Governments must support parents by creating support services for children and giving parents the help they need to raise their children.

Article 19 (protection from violence, abuse and neglect)
Governments must do all they can to ensure that children are protected from all forms of violence, abuse, neglect and bad treatment by their parents or anyone else who looks after them.

Article 20 (children unable to live with their family)
If a child cannot be looked after by their immediate family, the government must give them special protection and assistance. This includes making sure the child is provided with alternative care that is continuous and respects the child’s culture, language and religion.

Article 21 (adoption)
Governments must oversee the process of adoption to make sure it is safe, lawful and that it prioritises children’s best interests. Children should only be adopted outside of their country if they cannot be placed with a family in their own country.

Article 22 (refugee children)
If a child is seeking refuge or has refugee status; governments must provide them with appropriate protection and assistance to help them enjoy all the rights in the Convention. Governments must help refugee children who are separated from their parents to be reunited with them.

Article 23 (children with a disability)
A child with a disability has the right to live a full and decent life with dignity and, as far as possible, independence and to play an active part in the community. Governments must do all they can to support disabled children and their families.

Article 24 (health and health services)
Every child has the right to the best possible health. Governments must provide good quality health care, clean water, nutritious food, and a clean environment and education on health and well-being so that children can stay healthy. Richer countries must help poorer countries achieve this.

Article 25 (review of treatment in care)
If a child has been placed away from home for the purpose of care or protection (for example, with a foster family or in hospital), they have the right to a regular review of their treatment, the way they are cared for and their wider circumstances.

Article 26 (social security)
Every child has the right to benefit from social security. Governments must provide social security, including financial support and other benefits, to families in need of assistance.

Article 27 (adequate standard of living)
Every child has the right to a standard of living that is good enough to meet their physical and social needs and support their development. Governments must help families who cannot afford to provide this.

Article 28 (right to education)
Every child has the right to an education. Primary education must be free and different forms of secondary education must be available to every child. Discipline in schools must respect children’s dignity and their rights. Richer countries must help poorer countries achieve this.

Article 29 (goals of education)
Education must develop every child’s personality, talents and abilities to the fullest. It must encourage the child’s respect for human rights, as well as respect for their parents, their own and other cultures, and the environment.

Article 30 (children from minority or indigenous groups)
Every child has the right to learn and use the language, customs and religion of their family, whether or not these are shared by the majority of the people in the country where they live.

Article 31 (leisure, play and culture)
Every child has the right to relax, play and take part in a wide range of cultural and artistic activities.

Article 32 (child labour)
Governments must protect children from economic exploitation and work that is dangerous or might harm their health, development or education. Governments must set a minimum age for children to work and ensure that work conditions are safe and appropriate.

Article 33 (drug abuse)
Governments must protect children from the illegal use of drugs and from being involved in the production or distribution of drugs.

Article 34 (sexual exploitation)
Governments must protect children from all forms of sexual abuse and exploitation.

Article 35 (abduction, sale and trafficking)
Governments must protect children from being abducted, sold or moved illegally to a different place in or outside their country for the purpose of exploitation.

Article 36 (other forms of exploitation)
Governments must protect children from all forms of exploitation, for example the exploitation of children for political activities, by the media or for medical research.

Article 37 (inhumane treatment and detention)
Children must not be tortured, sentenced to the death penalty or suffer other cruelty or degrading treatment or punishment. Children should be arrested, detained or imprisoned only as a last resort and for the shortest time possible. They must be treated with respect and care, and be able to keep in contact with their family. Children must not be put in prison with adults.

Article 38 (war and armed conflicts)
Governments must not allow children under the age of 15 to take part in war or join the armed forces. Governments must do everything they can to protect and care for children affected by war and armed conflicts.

Article 39 (recovery from trauma and reintegration)
Children who have experienced neglect, abuse, exploitation, torture or who are victims of war must receive special support to help them recover their health, dignity, self-respect and social life.

Article 40 (juvenile justice)
A child accused or guilty of breaking the law must be treated with dignity and respect. They have the right to legal assistance and a fair trial that takes account of their age. Governments must set a minimum age for children to be tried in a criminal court and manage a justice system that enables children who have been in conflict with the law to reintegrate into society.

Article 41 (respect for higher national standards)
If a country has laws and standards that go further than the present Convention, then the country must keep these laws.

Article 42 (knowledge of rights)
Governments must actively work to make sure children and adults know about the Convention.
The Convention has 54 articles in total.

Articles 43–54 are about how adults and governments must work together to make sure all children can enjoy all their rights.

JOURNALISM

Journalism is the activity of gathering, assessing, creating, and presenting news and information. It is the by-product of the above activities.

Journalism can be distinguished from other activities and products by certain identifiable characteristics and practices. These elements not only separate journalism from other forms of communication, they are what make it indispensable to democratic societies. History reveals that the more democratic a society, the more news and information it tends to have.

What makes journalism different from other forms of communication?
The world, and especially the online world, is awash in communication. The vast majority of this communication, however, is not news and especially not journalism. Almost 70 percent of email traffic is spam, according to web security company Symantec. In 2012, there were an average of 175 million tweets each day. But almost all – 99% — consisted of “pointless babble,” according to researchers at Carnegie Mellon University.

While journalism occupies a much smaller space than the talk, entertainment, opinion, assertion, advertising and propaganda that dominate the media universe, it is nevertheless perceived as being more valuable than most of the “stuff out there.” That value flows from its purpose, to provide people with verified information they can use to make better decisions, and its practices, the most important of which is a systematic process – a discipline of verification – that journalists use to find not just the facts, but also the “truth about the facts.”

What is the purpose of journalism?

“The purpose of journalism,” according to Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel in The Elements of Journalism, “is not defined by technology, nor by journalists nor the techniques they employ.” Rather, “the principles and purpose of journalism are defined by something more basic: the function news plays in the lives of people.”
News is that part of communication that keeps us informed of the changing events, issues, and characters in the world outside. Though it may be interesting or even entertaining, the foremost value of news is as a utility to empower the informed.

The purpose of journalism is thus to provide citizens with the information they need to make the best possible decisions about their lives, their communities, their societies, and their governments.

The elements & Principles of journalism

In the book The Elements of Journalism, Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel identify the essential principles and practices of journalism.

10 elements common to good journalism, drawn from that book:

Journalism’s first obligation is to the truth its first loyalty is to citizens
Its essence is a discipline of verification
Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover news.
It must serve as an independent monitor of power
It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise
It must strive to keep the significant interesting and relevant
It must keep the news comprehensive and proportional
Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise their personal conscience
Citizens, too, have rights and responsibilities when it comes to the news.

Module Developed by: Baba Alexander

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