SYLLABUS OF THEORY 4 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, NUTRITION, NURSING & WELFARE OF CHILDREN. Unit 1 NUTRITION DAY 1-3
Pre Home Assignments
Learning Activity 1: Read passage & Meditate: Should read the passages in this unit minimum 3 times. After reading each paragraph, close your eyes & think about the paragraph content for a few minutes.
Learning Activity 2: Read Book & Write Review: Read Book & Write Review: Read minimum one book related to Nutrition during this theory paper & write your reviews in Theory Assignment Book about those books in 2 A 4 pages (each book).
Learning Activities for Live Class Session:
Learning Activity 1: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English about natural way of living and food habits. Invite an English fluent guest who completed a Diploma or Bachelor course in Ayurveda or Naturopathy for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Chances of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc. to be given to students.
Learning Activity 2: Pair Practice: On the basis of the passage written in this unit, two pupils sit face to face and talk about their positive food habits. Then change pairs and continue with other students.
Learning Activity 3: Discussion: Arrange a discussion in your class about “Bay foods are baby killers” by forming trainees into 7 or 8 member groups. One student moderates the program.
Learning Activity 4: Skit: Present a skit by forming trainees into 7 or 8 members groups. Sub: Bad food habits resulting in getting illness and thus making awareness on changing their food habits.
Learning Activity 5: Quiz Competition: One person prepares questions regarding food and food related things and conducts a Quiz competition in class.
Learning Activity 6: Group Discussion: Arrange a Group Discussion like in TV. All students are participating in the discussion.
Round 1: Purpose and objectives of learning and practicing the content in this theory unit
Round 2: How to apply the knowledge and the ideas in this unit in your life, career and in society.
Learning Activity 7: Self Boost Funny Debate: All students wear their favourite fruit’s mask, then conduct a self-boosting funny debate with different sound modulation and action. Each fruit boasts about their good things. Two students anchoring the program.
Learning Activity 8: Learning activity as per students’ choice. Conduct a learning activity as per the choice of lesson activities coordinating group.
Self-Home Assignments & with classmates:
Learning Activity 1: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about the Principles of Food in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.
Learning Activity 2: Pair TV Interview with a Nutritionist: One takes the role of a Nutritionist and the other one takes the role of an anchor. Sub: Things to take care in selecting food. Faculty prepare the list & put it in the group.
Learning Activity 3: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about balanced food in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.
Individual & pair learning activities as Post Home Assignments:
Learning Activity 1: Chart: Make a Balanced Diet Chart with your locally available natural food items. Consider the ideas written in this unit.
Learning Activity 2: Observe the Plant life with a Microscope or Crescograph (invented by JC Bose): Write your findings in 1 A4 page in your Theory Assignment Book (optional activity).
Learning Activity 3: Field Awareness Class: Visit a Kudumbasree or other local clubs or organization and give a class there in English regarding good food habits (optional activity).
Learning Activity 4: Make a Chart and Hang in the Dining Room: Write the 13 principles of food in a Chart paper in an attractive way and hang it on your house dining room.
Learning Activity 5: Self-Meditation: On the basis of the passages written in this unit, sit some time with closed eyes and think about the changes you want to make in your food habits.
Learning Activity 6: Make Slogans: Write 20 slogans based on good food habits in your own idea in a chart paper in an attractive way. Eg. ‘Health Is Wealth, Eat Right and Live Right, Eat Fresh Everyday- Greens and Beans’. Hang it in your house dining room.
Learning Activity 7: Honour a Tree: Honour a tree in your house or surrounding- give the tree a name, make lyrics about that tree in your Theory Assignment Book & sing with your music.
Health of a person depends on food and exercise. The physical Body gets existence because of eating food. The food habits knowingly or unknowingly lead to diseases. According to Ayurvedic science, the majority of diseases start from the stomach. For this, we need to understand, why do we eat, why to eat, how much to eat, how many times should we eat etc. Then only we can build and maintain our health.
Food factors and food items
Food factors are the food nutrients helping our body growth, activities & maintenance. The factors are mentioned below:
a. Carbohydrate (CH)
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen are the contents in carbohydrates. Water diluting form of CH is sugar and non-diluting form is Starch. Starch gives us the energy for our body. When we are chewing the food the ptyalin in the saliva gets mixed with starch and forms into maltose and later into glucose (C6H126O2) and gets diluted in the blood. With the act of metabolism glucose divides into water, energy sets absorbed by the body and CO2. The water and energy gets absorbed by the body and CO2 gets removed with the help of lungs. Carbohydrate content is more in cereals like wheat, rice, maize, millet etc., underground tubers like tapioca, elephant yam, potato, taro etc. and in vegetables & fruits. The over use of CH (especially rice), results in affecting diabetes. Another main reason for diabetes is the over use of allopathic medicines.
Protein is a main factor for body growth. That is why we call them body building tissues. It includes carbon, hydrogen oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, Phosphorus etc. Energy is also included in Protein. The protein that helps for digestion is called enzyme. Protein is needed for growing children. Protein is more in milk, egg, fish, meat, pea, bengal gram, horse gram, ground nut, black gram, green peas, red gram, soybean, banana, mango etc. Protein is more in groundnut, followed by pea variants and then more in fish and meat. For one day we need 30 to 40 grams of protein. The division of protein in the body thus produces urea, uric acid, carotene etc. Urea comes out from the body in the form of urine. But uric acid doesn’t get eliminated from the body. It gets concentrated on some body joints & thus leading to rheumatism types of diseases. The cause behind Arthritis and Rheumatism is the over deposition of proteins especially meat protein.
Up to some extent, fat is needed in our body. It creates immunity in our body and saves us from cold. It contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fat contains more energy (in one gram fat 9.3 calorie) Fat content is more in almost all oils, milk, egg, fish, meat, nut items etc. The extra fat gets stored in skin, muscles, marrow, kidney etc. Increasing the volume of fat from meat is dangerous to our body. The excess fat leads to the formation of cholesterol and thus stores in blood vessels and affects the flow of blood. The main reason behind all heart diseases and blood pressure (BP) is the over presence of fat in our body.
The main functions of minerals are bone building, teeth formation, helping the activities in cells etc. The main minerals are iron, iodine, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt etc. Among these calcium, iron and iodine are very important. For getting those we need to intake special food rich in minerals.
i Calcium: Calcium we can consider as body building material. For making our body beautiful, more breast milk, for the function of heart and nerves, calcium is very important. Calcium is rich in all leafy vegetables, gooseberry, beans, cauliflower, black gram, pea, guava, grapes, apple, orange, mango etc.
ii Iron: The main reason for Anaemia is the shortage of iron in the human body. Iron content mainly needed for making the R.B.C. in blood. Iron is more needed for ladies and small children. Anaemia sees more in ladies and kids. Iron content is more in leaves, meat, egg, fish, beans, soybean, bitter gourd, pea, fruits, grapes etc.
iii Iodine: Iodine helps in producing thyroxine hormone with the help of thyroid gland. 150 micrograms of iodine needed for a person in a day. The absence of it leads to diseases like goitre, abortion, delivering handicapped baby like mentally retarded and dump. Iodine is more in leafy juice, vegetables, fruits having sour, onion, fish, egg etc.
Vitamins are some types of chemical compounds formed from the food we eat. Its presence helps for digestion and thereby forms into different nutrients which help the body to do activities. Vitamins needed for the growth and activities of the body. Main vitamins are A, B- Complex, C, D, E, K etc.
i. Vitamin A: Vitamin A needed especially for eyes, skin and hair. The absence of this will reduce the immunity power. Vitamin A is more in leafy vegetables, tomato, carrot, mango, papaya, jackfruit, lemon, milk, egg, liver, fish oil etc.
ii. Vitamin B Complex: It includes B1, B2, B4, B6, B12, Folic Acid. It is very essential for the activities of the heart and nerves. The thiamine content in this vitamin helps in child growth. Absence of Vitamin B complex may lead to paralysis, bleeding, growth stunt numbness, grey hair, body irritation (burning), swelling of the organs etc. Vitamin B complex is more in pea items, nuts, carrot, potato, sweet potato, coconut, red rice, wheat, fish, meat, egg etc.
iii. Vitamin C: The role of Vitamin C is very important in body growth, like stopping bleeding, increases power of blood vessels, does blood purification, caring of skin, gums, teeth etc. Guava, tomato, lemon, gooseberry, grapes, orange, drum stick, potato, cabbage, drumstick tree leaves etc. contain more vitamin C.
iv. Vitamin D: Vitamin D is essential for the growth of bones and teeth. The main reason behind barrenness is the absence of vitamin D. Vegetables, milk, liver, egg yolk of egg, fish oil, sunlight etc. contain more vitamin D.
v. Vitamin E: The absence of Vitamin E also leads to barrenness. It plays a key role in the reproductive system. It is rich in milk, butter, egg yolk, leafy vegetables etc.
vi. Vitamin K: It helps the blood to get clot. It also helps in formation of calcium in blood. It is rich in vegetables, leafy vegetables’, egg yolk, tomato, milk etc.
The food items we are eating for body growth and activities can be divided into two categories: a) vegetarian food and b) Non vegetarian food.
A. Vegetarian Food:
Vegetarian food consists of fruits, nut items, leafy vegetables, vegetables, cereals, peas etc.
a) Fruits: Fruits contain all items needed for our body growth and activities. So we can consider fruits as complete food. Fruits reduce the acidity in our body. For the digestion of fruits, less than 2 hours are required. Fruits can be a substitute for medicine for diseases like rheumatism, piles, constipation etc. Fruits can be generally categorized as sweets and souring. Do not mix sweet and sour at a time. All fruits are energy boosters.
b) Nuts: Nuts contain all essential nutrients. Fat is rich in nuts. It is good to eat nuts along with fruits. Coconuts, cashew nuts, groundnut, Badam etc. are the major nuts with rich fat content.
c) Leaves: Leaves are the major vegetarian food. It contains all food factors and has medicinal value. Some leaves have the capacity to reproduce cells. Drumstick leaves increase the power of eye sight and reduce blood pressure and asthma. Spinach leaves are good for skin diseases and blood purification. Fenugreek leaves reduce the quantity of sugar in blood. Curry leaves are good for all stomach related illnesses. Crata eva leaves are a multi vita miner. Tulsi leaves have 37 medicinal values. Karuka leaves are rich in multivitamins. Usage of Karuka grass juice is better for increasing breast milk.
d) Vegetables: All Vegetables have the capacity to reproduce human cells. Cooking leads to the depletion of nutrient value in vegetables.
B. Non vegetarian Food:
Non veg. foods are not essential for man. It contains more protein and fat. The other nutrients are comparatively low in non-vegetarian food.
Food Categories: On the basis of the character, food items are divided into 3 categories- Swathvic, Rajasic and Thamasic. Fruits, nuts, vegetables and leafy vegetables come under Swathvic food. Egg, fish, meat, and food items mixed with salt, pungents, sour and other artificial taste makers come under Rajaswic food. Turned sour, decayed, food cooked before 3 or 4 hours and food kept in the refrigerator etc. comes under thamasvic food.
Principles of Food
1) Using 100 % Swathvic food is better for our body.
2) When you eat food, fill only 50% of your stomach with food, 25% with water and keep the remaining 25% unfilled.
3) Consume food according to the hunger and digestion capacity of the individual.
4) Hard working individuals should intake thrice a day and less hard working twice a day.
5) Chew the food properly while eating.
6) Eating either speedily or very slowly is not good.
7) After one meal, leave a gap for 4 or 5 hours.
8) Don’t consume heavy food during the night.
9) Fasting one time a week (especially at night) is better.
10) Don’t take food when the mind is in a worried state.
11) Don’t eat by blaming each other.
12) Use water before or after food, not in between.
13) Dinner/ supper should be before sunset.
No life without movement. The base of life is movement. Through exercise, the outer and inner body parts get movement and thereby it becomes stronger. Moreover, digestion, blood circulation, excretion etc. works smoothly. In adequate exercise is the main reason behind many diseases. Yoga is a very good exercise for the body, mind and spirit acquired from ancient times.
Anything firstly forms in mind. It is the centre of imaginations, thoughts, feelings, skills etc. The condition of the mind affects the body.
Module Developed by: Baba Alexander