Pre Home Assignments

Learning Activity 1: Read passage & Meditate: Should read the passages in this unit minimum 3 times. After reading each paragraph, close the eyes & think about the paragraph content in a few minutes.

Learning Activity 2: Search on the Internet regarding different teaching & learning approaches adopted across the world & write a brief note about that in your Theory Assignment Book in 3 A4 pages.

Learning Activity 3: Watch minimum 10 YouTube videos related with usage of technology in teaching & education & write a note in 2 A 4 page regarding this in your Theory Assignment Book.

Learning Activities for Live Class Session:

Learning Activity 1: Deliver Lecture: Lotto putting regarding different approaches to education. Lotto getting person gives a lecture about that point in 2 -3 minutes.

Learning Activity 2: Pair interview with blind folding: A blind folding B. Then ask questions relate with any approach, then B tells answers with blind folding. Then B blind folding A & ask questions & A answer with blind fold.

Learning Activity 3: TV Panel Discussion: Panel members share their views and experience regarding: “Virtual Class Rooms”.

Learning Activity 4: Seminar & Essay: All trainees should write essays in their own words not more than 2 A4 pages, and briefing it at the forum in the first round. Sub: ‘My approach to teach pe-primary & primary school children’. Round 2: Question answer session.

Learning Activity 5: Skit: Make a skit based on the student orient approach written in this unit.

Learning Activity 6: Group Discussion: Arrange a Group Discussion. All students are participating in the discussion.

Round 1: Purpose and objectives of learning and practicing the content in this theory unit

Round 2: How to apply the knowledge and the ideas in this unit in your life, career and in society.

Learning Activity 7: Learning activity as per students’ choice. Conduct a learning activity related to this unit as per majority students’ choice.

Self-Home Assignments & with classmates:

Learning Activity 1: Pair interview with blind folding: A blind folding B. Then ask questions regarding different approaches of education, then B tells answers with blind folding. Then B blind folding A & ask questions & A answer with blind fold. Faculty prepare the list & put it in the group.

Learning Activity 2: Self Speech in front of mirror: About each approach of education in 2- 3 minutes.

Learning Activity 3: Group Discussion: Arrange a Discussion 4 / 5 members group like in TV about Usage of latest technology in education. One student acts as the anchor / moderator. Faculty prepare the list & put it in the group.

Individual, pair & outside learning activities as Post Home Assignments:

Learning Activity 1: Observing through You Tube: Different varieties or approaches of teaching by observing through YouTube.

Learning Activity 2: Write an essay in your own words in 2 A 4 pages. Subject: ‘Teaching in 2050’.

Learning Activity 3: Find useful websites for school education. Make a list of such web sites, applications & other social media useful for school teaching & learning and write such a list in your theory assignment book.


Teacher-Centered Approach to Learning

Teachers are the main authority figure in this model. Students are viewed as “empty vessels” whose primary role is to passively receive information (via lectures and direct instruction) with an end goal of testing and assessment. It is the primary role of teachers to pass knowledge and information onto their students. In this model, teaching and assessment are viewed as two separate entities. Student learning is measured through objectively scored tests and assessments.

Student-Centered Approach to Learning

While teachers are an authority figure in this model, teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process. The teacher’s primary role is to coach and facilitate student learning and overall comprehension of material. Student learning is measured through both formal and informal forms of assessment, including group projects, student portfolios and class participation. Teaching and assessment are connected; student learning is continuously measured during teacher instruction.


To better understand these approaches, it is important to discuss what is generally understood as the three main teaching styles in educational pedagogy: direct instruction, inquiry-based learning and cooperative learning. Through these three teaching methods, teachers can gain a better understanding of how to govern their classroom, implement instruction and connect with their students. Within each of these three main teaching styles are teaching roles or “models”. Theorist A.F. Grasha explains the five main teaching models in her publication ‘Teaching with Style’ (1996): Expert, Formal Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator and Delegator. To gain a better understanding of the fundamentals of each teaching style, it’s best to view them through the lens of direct instruction, inquiry-based learning, and cooperative teaching.

Direct Instruction

Direct instruction is the general term that refers to the traditional teaching strategy that relies on explicit teaching through lectures and teacher-led demonstrations. Direct instruction is the primary teaching strategy under the teacher-centered approach, in that teachers and professors are the sole supplier of knowledge and information. Direct instruction is effective in teaching basic and fundamental skills across all content areas.

Inquiry-based Learning

Inquiry-based learning is a teaching method that focuses on student investigation and hands-on learning. In this method, the teacher’s primary role is that of a facilitator, providing guidance and support for students through the learning process. Inquiry-based learning falls under the student-centered approach, in that students play an active and participatory role in their own learning process.

Cooperative Learning

Cooperative Learning refers to a method of teaching and classroom management that emphasizes group work and a strong sense of community. This model fosters students’ academic and social growth and includes teaching techniques such as “Think-Pair-Share” and reciprocal teaching. Cooperative learning falls under the student-centered approach because learners are placed in responsibility of their learning and development. This method focuses on the belief that students learn best when working with and learning from their peers.

The Responsive Classroom Approach

The Responsive Classroom approach is an innovative way of teaching developed by the Northeast Foundation for Children (NEFC). The NEFC is a non-profit organization founded in 1981 by a group of public school educators seeking to share the knowledge, skills, and philosophies they had acquired through years of teaching. The result of their combined experiences is the Responsive Classroom approach, which emphasizes the social, emotional, and academic growth of elementary school students in a strong and safe learning environment. The Responsive Classroom approach incorporates the students’ social and emotional growth into their academic learning, stemming from the notion that children learn best through social interaction and when they are explicitly taught social and emotional skills along with their academic lessons. The goal is to enable optimal student learning, and through the implementation and refining of classroom and school-wide practices, the Responsive Classroom approach has been shown to increase academic achievement in elementary school students, decrease problem behaviours, improve social skills, and raise the quality of instruction.


Technology provides hands-on experiences to students. Technology helps students become active in the learning process. Using technology in the classroom is one of the essential practices for keeping students engaged. Students engage with the lesson because their voices are heard through contributions they make on their own devices. This eliminates the old pick-and-choose method.

Module Developed by: Baba Alexander

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