SYLLABUS OF THEORY 4 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, NUTRITION, NURSING & WELFARE OF CHILDREN. Unit 8 CAREER & PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT DAY 17-29

Pre Home Assignments

Learning Activity 1: Read Passage & Meditate: Should read the passage in this unit minimum 3 times. After reading each paragraph, close your eyes & think about the paragraph content for a few minutes. Also do the preparations for the Live Class Lesson Activities.

Learning Activities for Live Class Session:

Learning Activity 1: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English regarding ‘Tips and Techniques for Effective Public Speaking’. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 2: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English regarding ‘Tips and Techniques for Developing Skills in Debate’. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 3: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English about Law of Attraction. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 4: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English about Enneagram and its applications. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 5: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English about ‘Tips and Techniques for Time Management & Multitasking’. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 6: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English regarding ‘Tips and Techniques for Personality Development’. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 7: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English regarding different ‘Tips and Techniques for Presentation Skills’. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 8: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English about Attractive Curriculum vitae and its preparation. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 9: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English about ‘Tips and Techniques for Telephonic & Online Job Interviews’. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 10: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English about ‘Practical Tips for Face to Face Job Interviews’. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 11: Guest Class: Arrange a subject expert’s class in English regarding ‘Types of Job Interviews and Tips and Techniques for performing in such Interviews’. Invite an English fluent guest for delivering a class and clearing the doubts of trainees. If any trainee is able to do this, give chance to her. Trainees taking the roles of welcome speech, presidential speech, vote of thanks, anchoring etc.

Learning Activity 12: Practice Pair Telephonic Job Interview: Two pupils conduct a Telephonic Job Interview. One is an Interviewer and the other one is an applicant. Change pairs and continue with other students.

Learning Activity 13: Practice Mock Behavioural Job Interview: Conduct an online Mock Behavioural Job Interview. Allow all trainees to act as members in the interview board on rotation basis and as the job applicant.

Learning Activity 14: Practice Mock Case Job Interview: Conduct an online Mock Case Job Interview. Allow all trainees to act as members in the interview board on rotation basis and as the job applicant.

Learning Activity 15: Practice Mock Stress Job Interview: Conduct an online Mock Stress Job Interview. Allow all trainees to act as members in the interview board on rotation basis and as the job applicant.

Learning Activity 16: Group Discussion: Arrange a Group Discussion like in TV. All students are participating in the discussion.
Round 1: Purpose and objectives of learning and practicing the content in this theory unit
Round 2: How to apply the knowledge and the ideas in this unit in your life, career and in society.

Learning Activity 17: Learning activity as per students’ choice. Conduct a learning activity as per the choice of lesson activities coordinating group.

Self-Home Assignments & with classmates:

Learning Activity 1: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Tips for Mastering the Art of Public Speaking in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 2: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Important skills for Debating and Other Skills for Debating in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 3: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Law of Attraction and its Benefits in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 4: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Enneagram and its Benefits in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 5: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Multitasking and its Benefits in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 6: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Time Management and its Benefits in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 7: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Easy and Effective Tips for Successful Personality Development in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 8: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Tips for Effective Presentations in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 9: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Top Tips to Structure your CV in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 10: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Proper Phone Interview Etiquette & Tips for Acing a Phone Interview in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 11: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Tips for Face to Face Job Interviews in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Learning Activity 12: Self Speech in front of Mirror: Do a Self-Speech about Tips to follow during the interview in front of the mirror by following all the formalities and techniques of public speech.

Individual & pair learning activities as Post Home Assignments:

Learning Activity 1: Practice Law of Attraction. Practice Law of Attraction for your personal and professional purpose.

Learning Activity 2: Prepare a Professional CV: Prepare your own Professional CV for your career and professional purpose.

Learning Activity 3: Testing your Enneagram Personality: Test your Enneagram Personality by using any good Enneagram Test Form. Eg:
https://www.truity.com/test/enneagram-personality-test

PUBLIC SPEAKING

Public speaking is important in both business, education, and the public arena. There are many benefits to public speaking whether you’re an individual or a business.
What is public speaking? Basically, it’s a presentation that’s given live before an audience. Public speeches can cover a wide variety of different topics. The goal of the speech may be to educate, entertain, or influence the listeners. Often, visual aids in the form of an electronic slideshow are used to supplement the speech and make it more interesting to the listeners.
The truth is that public speaking is a skill. It can be learned. While some people may have more natural speaking ability than others, or a more pleasing voice, or are more charismatic—anyone who can speak can learn to be a better public speaker than they are right now. It just takes some know-how and some effort.
A public speaking presentation is different from an online presentation because the online presentation may be viewed and/or listened to at the viewer’s convenience, while a public speech is typically limited to a specific time or place. Online presentations often present with slideshows or pre-recorded videos of a speaker (including recordings of a live public speaking presentation).
Because public speaking is done before a live audience, there are some special factors the speaker needs to take into consideration. We’ll touch on those shortly, but first let’s take a quick look at the history of public speaking.

Tips for Mastering the Art of Public Speaking

We all have the need to speak well in front of an audience at times during our lives. Whether you’re speaking at your sister’s wedding, addressing your team, teaching a course or speaking to a judge, we all want to do well. So why leave things to chance?
Here are some tips that will launch you into the speaking stratosphere:
1. Know your audience.
If you are speaking in front of an audience, there is usually a reason. Know who you are speaking to and what they want or need to take away. If it’s friends and family, entertain them. If it’s a corporate event, teach and inspire them. Knowing the demographic of the audience is imperative.
2. Rehearse, rehearse and rehearse.
Nothing becomes muscle memory unless you practice relentlessly. If you have a big speech coming up, make time every day to practice. Prepare your goals and the content well ahead of time. This can be done while driving, exercising, in the car, on a plane…anywhere.
3. Practice with distractions.
Once I know the content, I like to add a little bit of distraction to test how well prepared I really am. Turn on the TV or rehearse while pushing your child in the swing. Anything that adds a little more challenge.
4. Find a style that works for you.
Different events will often require a different approach or style. Sometimes reading a prepared speech is fine. But know it backward and forward so you’re not staring down at the pages the whole time. Some use notes. Others prefer to be 100 percent scripted and memorized. If that’s your style, memorize the content so well that you can go off script if needed — and so you don’t sound like you’re reciting a poem. Use the proper approach for the appropriate event.
5. Know the environment.
Know the venue where you will be speaking. Get there well ahead of time. Walk the room. Walk the stage. Get a feel for the vibe of the environment so you are more comfortable when it’s “go time.”
6. Test all equipment.
Nothing sucks more than last-minute technical difficulties. Avoid adding even more stress by testing any and all equipment and audio visual functions ahead of time. And have backups.
7. Practice in front of a mirror.
Practicing in front of a mirror is a good way to learn the proper amount of body motion, hand usage and facial expressions.
8. Take every opportunity to speak.
The only way to get better at anything is to do it all the time. Rehearsing is good, but nothing compares to actually getting up in front of an audience and doing it for real.
9. Practice body language and movement.
Remember, communication is much more about tone and body language than the words we say. The words of course matter, but emphasis comes with movement and body language.
10. Slow down.
We have some great sayings in the SEAL teams: ”slow is smooth, and smooth is fast, “ and “don’t run to your death.” Nothing shows nerves more than racing through your presentation. If you want to impact the audience in a meaningful way, make sure they actually hear what you are saying. Slow it down.
11. Make eye contact.
This one is very important, and it doesn’t matter how big the audience is. Make eye contact with as many people as possible. It makes the audience members feel like you are speaking directly to them. And don’t just stick to people in the first couple rows. Look at the people in the back too.
12. Know your material.
If your goal is to become a thought leader or actually teach the audience something, only a truly authentic understanding of the material will get you there.
13. Take long pauses.
Similar to slowing things down, make a point to take long pauses. And make them longer than you even think is appropriate. It can have a great impact on emphasizing key points and emotionally connecting to the audience.
14. Practice tone and projection.
Don’t just seek your way through a speech using the same tone and volume. Tone and projection add a layer of entertainment and help keep the audience fully engaged from start to finish. These too must be practiced religiously.
15. Use humour and emotion.
It doesn’t matter what you are talking about. There is always a place for emotion or humour, or both. I once gave a presentation about data analytics at a conference — boring! So I made sure to weave in plenty of humour to spice things up. I find self-deprecating humour to work the best. And if you are starting to get emotional, so what? Use it. The audience may not remember everything you said, but they will remember how you made them feel.
16. Mentally prepare.
Find time during the hour before your speech for some solitude. Get your mind right. Clear your head. If it’s five minutes before, just relax. The time for making sure you know the material perfectly has passed.
17. Exercise before you go on.
It’s almost impossible to feel stress and anxiety after a good workout. If you have the time, exercise. The closer to your speech, the better. It’s also a good time to practice. I like to rehearse while running or swimming.
18. Project confidence.
The more you project confidence, the more confident you are likely to feel. Get out there and own the room. Even if you are terrified. Fake it. Look people in the eye and command their attention.
19. Don’t go over the allotted time.
When in doubt, go under the allotted time. Less is sometimes more. But never, ever, go over. It’s poor speaking etiquette and shows you are not prepared. It’s also disrespectful of the agenda for the event. Again, just practice.
20. Ask for feedback.
Most of us don’t like to ask for feedback, especially when we know the response may include some constructive criticism. Speaking is a great way to connect with people and a skill we all should master.

DEBATING

A debate is a structured argument. Two sides speak alternately for and against a particular contention usually based on a topical issue. Unlike the arguments you might have with your family or friends however, each person is allocated a time they are allowed to speak for and any interjections are carefully controlled. The subject of the dispute is often prearranged so you may find yourself having to support opinions with which you do not normally agree. You also have to argue as part of a team, being careful not to contradict what others on your side have said.
Why debate?
It is an excellent way of improving speaking skills and is particularly helpful in providing experience in developing a convincing argument. Those of you who are forced to argue against your natural point of view realize that arguments, like coins, always have at least two sides.

Important skills for debating

To meet the judges criteria you will have to develop certain skills, consider the following:
• Your points must be relevant to the topic.
• Provide evidence whenever you can and not your personal opinion.
• You must put aside your personal views and remain objective when you debate so your argument remains logical. You can be passionate about a topic but interest can turn into aggression and passion can turn into upset.
• Consider the audience’s attention span – make it interesting, for example, don’t just present lots of complicated statistics.
• Use rhetoric to persuade – consider using the three pillars of rhetoric:
o Ethos – the ethical appeal
o Pathos – the emotional appeal
o Logos – the logical appeal
• Use notes but keep them brief and well organised. Use a different piece of paper for rebuttals.
• Similar to looking at conclusions to create rebuttals, think comparatively by asking yourself “How does my plan compare to what’s happening now/what would happen in the world if the other team won?” You can win the debate if you can make comparative claims about why your arguments matter more than the other team.
• Only tell jokes if you’re naturally good at it otherwise this can backfire.
• Flexibility is important because you might get allocated the side of the argument you don’t agree with. You’ll have to work hard to overcome your views. Also use this insight to think of the potential arguments you might make and then plan for counter arguments.
Voice
• Speak clearly and concisely.
• You must talk fast enough to have the time to deliver your speech but slow enough so you can be understood.
• Project your voice to the back of the room.
• Incorporate dramatic pauses.
• Emphasise important words and vary your tone appropriately.
Confidence
• Have a relaxed pose and posture.
• Avoid filler words.
• Know your material.
• Emphasise using gestures and avoid nervous gestures.
• Maintain eye contact with the audience.
Language
• Keep your language simple to avoid confusion.
• Refer to the opposite side as: “My opponent”.
• When making a rebuttal, say: “My opponent said…, however…”
• Don’t exaggerate – avoid the words “never” or “always” etc.
• Avoid saying that a speaker “is wrong”, instead say that “your idea is mistaken”.
What to avoid
• Falsifying, making up or altering evidence.
• Publicly disagreeing with the judges’ decision.
• Attacking a speaker rather than an idea.
• Acting aggressively or offensively towards debaters, judges, audience etc.
• Interrupting other debaters as this can suggest that your argument isn’t very strong.
• Disagreeing with facts or obvious truths.

Other Debating Skills

Style
Style is the manner in which you communicate your arguments. This is the most basic part of debating to master. Content and strategy are worth little unless you deliver your material in a confident and persuasive way.
Speed
It is vital to talk at a pace which is fast enough to sound intelligent & allow you time to say what you want, but slow enough to be easily understood.
Tone
Varying tone is what makes you sound interesting. Listening to one tone for an entire presentation is boring.
Volume
Speaking quite loudly is sometimes a necessity, but it is by no means necessary to shout through every debate regardless of context. There is absolutely no need to speak any more loudly than the volume at which everyone in the room can comfortably hear you. Shouting does not win debates. Speaking too quietly is clearly disastrous since no one will be able to hear you.
Clarity
The ability to concisely and clearly express complex issues is what debating is all about. The main reason people begin to sound unclear is usually because they lose the “stream of thought” which is keeping them going. It is also important to keep it simple. While long words may make you sound clever, they may also make you incomprehensible.
Use of notes and eye contact
Notes are essential, but they must be brief and well organized to be effective. There is absolutely no point in trying to speak without notes. Of course, notes should never become obtrusive and damage your contact with the audience, nor should they ever be read from verbatim. Most people sketch out the main headings of their speech, with brief notes under each.
When writing notes for rebuttal during the debate, it is usually better to use a separate sheet of paper so you can take down the details of what the other speakers have said and then transfer a rough outline onto the notes you will actually be using.
Eye contact with the audience is very important, but keep shifting your gaze. No one likes to be stared at.

THE LAW OF ATTRACTION

The History of the Law of Attraction

While the law of attraction has received quite a bit of attention in recent years, the concept is not exactly new. These ideas have philosophical roots that date back to the early 19th-century approach known as “New Thought.” There was a resurgence of interest in the idea during the 20th century, particularly with the 2006 release of the film “The Secret,” which was then later developed into the best-selling book of the same title and its 2010 sequel “The Power.”
The Law of Attraction is the most powerful law in the universe. Just like gravity, it is always in effect, always in motion. It is working in your life at this very moment. You are always in a state of creation. You are creating your reality in every moment of every day. You are creating your future with every single thought: either consciously or subconsciously. You can’t take a break from it and decide not to create because creation never stops.
Understanding just how the Law of Attraction is a fundamental key to your success. If you want to change your life, and empower yourself to create an amazing future, then you need to understand your role in the Law of Attraction.
Science of the Law of Attraction?
The law of attraction is a philosophy suggesting that positive thoughts bring positive results into a person’s life, while negative thoughts bring negative outcomes. It is based on the belief that thoughts are a form of energy and that positive energy attracts success in all areas of life, including health, finances, and relationships.
Advocates suggest there are central universal principles that make up the law of attraction:
• Like attracts like: This law suggests that similar things are attracted to one another. It means that people tend to attract people who are similar to them—but it also suggests that people’s thoughts tend to attract similar results. Negative thinking is believed to attract negative experiences, while positive thinking is believed to produce desirable experiences.
• Nature abhors a vacuum: This law of attraction suggests that removing negative things from your life can make space for more positive things to take their place. It is based on the notion that it is impossible to have a completely empty space in your mind and in your life. Since something will always fill this space, it is important to fill that space with positivity, proponents of this philosophy say.

• The present is always perfect: This law focuses on the idea that there are always things you can do to improve the present moment. While it might always seem like the present is somehow flawed, this law proposes that, rather than feeling dread or unhappiness, you should focus your energy on finding ways to make the present moment the best that it can be.

How to Use the Law of Attraction

Once you understand the Law of Attraction, and how it works, you can begin to consciously and intentionally create a better life.
You can choose to respond differently to the situations that arise during your day. You can choose to think differently.
You can choose to focus and think about the things you want more of in your life.
You can choose to experience more of the things that make you feel good.
You can choose to deliberately participate in the creation of your future by managing your thoughts and feelings.
Using the Law of Attraction is a three-step process: ask, believe and receive. Let’s go into detail on each aspect.
1. Ask the universe for what you want, not for what you don’t want:
Every day, you send out requests to the universe—as well as to your subconscious mind—in the form of thoughts: literally, what you think about, read about, talk about, and give your attention to. Unfortunately, what we give our attention to is often random and not deliberate, you simply respond to situations.
Because the Law of Attraction states that you’ll attract into your life whatever you give your energy, focus, and attention to—wanted or unwanted.
You must become more deliberate about what you think and feel. To become more intentional about the thoughts you offer the universe, you’ll need to decide what you want—but also practice feeling those emotions you’ll experience when you have it.
Perhaps you want to change careers, move to another state, win a major professional award, have your own TV show, or recover from a major illness.
• How would you feel once you’ve “arrived” at your goal?
• What would you be doing throughout your day?
• Who would you be spending time with?
The more you focus on and talk about what you DO want (instead of what you don’t want), the faster you will manifest your dreams and goals.
2. Believe that you’ll get what you want, then take action
What does it mean to believe you’ll get what you want?
It means maintaining a positive expectancy, going about your day with certainty— knowing that you’ve put your future in the hands of powers that are greater than yours. It’s deciding with conviction that what you want will absolutely happen. This is not always easy.
Many people have limiting beliefs which keep them from allowing abundance and happiness into their lives. If this describes you, realize that you must first change your limiting beliefs into thoughts that you are deserving, worthy, lovable, desirable, and capable—as well as smart enough, strong enough, attractive enough, rich enough, good enough, and “enough” in every other way that matters to you.
Once you believe that you’ll get what you want, the second part of the equation is to take action.
Taking the actions that would create your desired result affirms your belief that what you want is within reach.
3. Receive what you want by becoming a vibrational match for it
In order to receive that which you are intending, you must become a “vibrational match” for what you want to attract into your life.
The easiest way to become a vibrational match is to focus on creating positive emotions of love, joy, appreciation, and gratitude throughout your day. You can also practice feeling the emotions you would be experiencing if you already had what you wanted. You can also create these emotions through the thoughts that you think. In fact, your thoughts are creating feelings all the time, so it’s important to catch yourself when your emotions turn negative and turn them to positive emotions. As with everything, this takes time and practice. However, the more you put a conscious effort into attracting what you want, and following these steps, the easier it will become.
You can begin to expect miracles.
How to Practice
According to the law of attraction, you create your own reality. What you focus on is what you draw into your life. It suggests that what you believe will happen in your life is what does happen.
Some things that you can do to incorporate the law of attraction into your own life include:
• Be grateful
• Visualize your goals
• Look for the positives in a situation
• Learn how to identify negative thinking
• Use positive affirmations
• Reframe negative events in a more positive way
While the law of attraction may not be an immediate solution for all of life’s challenges, it can help you learn to cultivate a more optimistic outlook on life. It may also help you stay motivated to continue working toward your goals.
How to Use Positive Affirmations
Impact
While the law of attraction lacks scientific support, proponents suggest that it can produce positive changes in a person’s life. Some reasons why people may experience benefits from this philosophy include:
Spiritual Effects
The law of attraction may produce results because it taps into people’s spirituality. Spirituality itself is connected to a variety of health benefits including reduced stress, better health, lower depression, and better overall well-being. Many people believe that this philosophy works by aligning God or the universe with our wishes. This notion suggests that people are all made of energy, and this energy operates at different frequencies. Because of this, it is important to change the frequency of energy with positive thoughts, especially gratitude for what we already have. By using grateful, positive thoughts and feelings and by focusing on our dreams rather than our frustrations, we can change the frequency of our energy, and the law of attraction brings positive things into our lives. What we attract depends on where and how we focus our attention, but we must believe that it’s already ours or soon will be.
Better Well-Being
Utilizing the law of attraction may also bring about positive impacts on mental well-being. By focusing on attaining a new reality, and by believing it is possible, we tend to take more risks, notice more opportunities, and open ourselves up to new possibilities. Conversely, when we don’t believe that something is in the realm of possibilities for us, we tend to let opportunities pass by unnoticed. When we believe we don’t deserve good things, we behave in ways that sabotage our chances of happiness. By changing our self-talk and feelings about life, we reverse the negative patterns in our lives and create more positive, productive, and healthy ones. One good thing leads to another, and the direction of a life can shift from a downward spiral to an upward ascent. Research on optimism shows that optimists enjoy better health, greater happiness, and more success in life. They possess traits that allow them to focus their thoughts on their successes and mentally minimize their failures.
One of the foundations of many types of therapy is that changing your self-talk can change your life in a positive direction. Cognitive-behavioural therapy, a widely used and effective treatment for many conditions, is based on the idea that identifying and changing automatic negative thoughts can produce positive effects and help people achieve better mental well-being.
Tips / Tricks
There are some exercises that can help you learn to put the law of attraction into practice in your own life. Some ideas include:
• Journaling: Writing down your thoughts can help you better learn to recognize your habitual thought patterns to see whether you tend toward optimism or pessimism and learn more about changing negative patterns of thought.
• Make a mood board: Create a visual reminder that helps you maintain a positive mind-set, stay motivated, and focus on your goals.
• Practice acceptance: Instead of focusing on what is wrong about the present or what needs to be changed, work on accepting things as they are. This doesn’t mean that you won’t continue to work toward a better future, it just means that you won’t get bogged down by wishing for things to be different right now.
• Practice positive self-talk: If you struggle with being overly self-critical, set a goal to engage in positive self-talk each day. Over time, this may come much more easily and you may find that it is harder to maintain a negative mind-set.
Potential Pitfalls
One problem with books such as “The Secret” as well as with some people’s interpretation of the law of attraction is that it suggests it’s the belief that good things will come to us that will bring us all that we desire, without any sort of action behind that belief.
It is the optimistic viewpoint that drives proactive behaviours that, in turn, bring optimists such great results in their lives. Optimists don’t receive their benefits from their attitudes alone—it’s the behaviour the attitudes inspire that creates real change.
In order for beliefs to affect behaviour, it is important to also have things such as:
• Goals
• Mindfulness
• Commitment
• Motivation
• Timelines
• Challenges
• Support
Critics of “The Secret” and other books about the law of attraction also point out the very real concern that people may start to blame themselves for negative events that are outside their control, such as accidents and injuries, layoffs due to a financial downturn, or major illnesses.
We can’t always control our circumstances, but we can control our responses to them. In this vein, the law of attraction can provide the optimism and proactive attitude that’s associated with resilience in difficult situations, but it must not be used as a tool of self-blame.
Your responses to the challenges you face can make you stronger. In that way, the law of attraction can be useful when it encourages such strength. However, it should not be applied negatively or it can be more destructive than helpful.
Money and the Law of Attraction
If you want to create financial abundance in your life, then start by focusing on prosperity and money flowing into your life. Envision the checks coming in the mail. Write yourself a check for the sum of money you wish to manifest this year, and post it in a visible location. Every time you see it, believe that it is possible.
Remember to take a moment to be thankful for everything that you already have. By doing this, you are creating a vibrational match for the financial abundance that you want to attract into your future life.
The Law of Attraction in Love and Relationships
If you want to create an abundance of love in your life, then focus on love. Be the love you want to attract.
Become more loving and generous with others and with yourself. By creating the vibration of love, you will automatically draw more love into your life.
Focus on whatever it is that you want to create more of in your life, and remember to be grateful for that which you already have.
Gratitude itself is a form of abundance, and the vibrational frequency of gratitude and appreciation will automatically attract even more to be grateful for.
A Law of Attraction Meditation for Guidance
Take time each day to step away from the clutter and the noise. A daily commitment to spend time in this still, quiet place is a commitment to clarity and inner peace. We need this time and space in our lives in order to remember who we really are, what’s important, and where our personal truth lies. It is our time to calm the spirit and soothe the soul.
You can learn how to meditate in many different ways, but in general, they consist of simply being still and quiet for a period of time and focusing your attention on either your breath or a mantra of some sort. If you are new to the practice of meditation—your thoughts will drift, and your mind will wander at first. Remember not to be hard on yourself when this happens. This is just part of learning how to meditate. If you have never meditated before, here’s a simple structure of exercises you can use to begin.
1. Find a quiet place, close your eyes, and focus on slowing down your breathing.
2. Repeat an uplifting word or phrase.
3. Move into a state of quiet.
4. Imagine yourself surrounded by a sphere of light.
The regular practice of meditation will help clear your mind of distractions, cleanse your thoughts, and enhance your spiritual connection. It renews the spirit, relaxes the body, and calms the soul.
Law of Attraction Tips for letting it Work in Your Life
Now that you understand a little bit more about how you participate in the process of the Law of Attraction, you can begin to take responsibility for everything that you are currently in the process of attracting into your life. Now that you are aware of the role you play in creating your life, you can no longer create your future accidentally or by default! Take this to heart, because this is your moment, your time to begin consciously, intentionally, and deliberately participating in the creation of the future you desire.
1. Your Thoughts Determine Your Desires
Your thoughts are powerful. They are real, they are measurable, and they are energy. Every single thought you have is a statement of your desires to the universe. The thoughts you think today, feelings you feel today, and actions you take today will determine your experiences tomorrow. So it is imperative that you learn to think and behave in a positive way that is in alignment with what you ultimately want to be, do, and experience in life.
2. Dream Big
Don’t censor your dreams or vision with practicalities and probabilities. You don’t need to know every single step that it will take to achieve your goals. Just decide what you want. Know that you deserve it. Believe you can have it, then release it, and let it go.
Open yourself up to infinite possibilities. Watch for the signs. Watch the miracles unfold. Now, consider this possibility—if you can figure it all out on your own, then your dream may not be big enough!
3. Use Positive Affirmations
Affirmations simply affirm your positive beliefs about yourself and about life. Every thought you think and every word you say is an affirmation. Your thoughts and words are declarations of who you think you are and how you perceive the world to be. Strong, positive affirmations are powerful means of self-transformation and they are a key element in the creation of the life you desire.
They work by purposely replacing the limiting ideas, negative beliefs, and self-talk that you have taken on and internalized over the years with positive statements that assert who you want to be and how you want to experience life.
4. Clarify Your Goals
There are no limits on your dreams and goals. The whole world is out there just waiting for you. This is an inspirational technique that you might want to try as well. A great process for clarifying some of your more long-term life goals and dreams is to make a list of 101 goals that you would like to accomplish before you die—101 things you would like to do, be, or have. I wrote my life goals list in 1989 and you can read my personal life goals list for inspiration.
5. Use a Vision Board to Attract Resources That Help Achieve Your Goals
Having a daily vision board practice will keep your mind focused on your goals.

ENNEAGRAM

What Is the Enneagram?
The Enneagram is a typology system that describes human personality as a number of interconnected personality types. While it has become popular within spirituality and business disciplines, there has been limited research on its use and it is not widely accepted in the field of evidence-based psychology.
The Enneagram consists of a nine-point diagram. Each point represents a personality type. The Enneagram figure or diagram is made up of three elements. The outer part is made up of a circle, which then contains a triangle and an irregular hexagon.
At its simplest, the Enneagram represents nine different personality types.1 Beyond the basic nine personality types, the system grows much more complex and includes 27 different subtypes as well as three key “centers” focused on action, feeling, and thinking.
How Do You Know Your Enneagram?
Each of the nine personality types is characterized by a set of dominant behaviors, motivations, and fears. The goal of this system is to better understand your type so that you’ll be able to make the most of your strengths and address your weaknesses in order to achieve your full potential.
Your Basic Type
According to Enneagram theory, people are born with a dominant personality type that can then be shaped by environmental factors and experiences.1
These two forces also tend to influence each other: While inborn traits and characteristics help shape how people respond to their experiences, their environment also plays a role in shaping how personality is formed and expressed.
Your Adjacent Types
The Enneagram system also holds that no one is simply a single pure type. Instead, personality is a mix of your basic type as well as at least one or two adjacent types known as “wings.” These adjacent personality types may influence overall personality, but they do not change a person’s basic type.
According to Enneagram theory, people do not change from one basic type of personality to another. However, not all elements of personality are always expressed—people are always fluctuating depending on factors such as their health and habits.
You might identify with the traits of other types, but the Enneagram suggests that it is your dominant type that is the most important.
After taking an Enneagram test, respondents learn which basic type best describes their personality. Depending upon the test, respondents may also discover one or two additional types that also contribute to their overall personality.

Enneagram Types
Each of the nine types are known by both their number and their name. Each has its own set of potential strengths and weaknesses.
1. Reformer
• Highly principled
• Can be judgmental and uncompromising
• Perfectionistic, purposeful, and self-controlled
• Strives for integrity
• Fears corruption
• Has a strong sense of what is the “right” and “wrong” way to do things
2. Helper
• Generous and people-pleasing
• Has a strong desire to be loved, sometimes denying their own needs in order to make others happy
• Puts a lot of energy into their relationships, but this is sometimes interpreted as neediness
• Genuine
• Good listener
• Tends to overlook own needs
3. Achiever
• Successful, adaptable, and hardworking
• May sometimes be overachievers or workaholics
• Driven to excel
• Image-conscious
• Adaptable
• More focused on success than feelings, but are good at communicating
4. Individualist
• Creative, forward-thinking, and highly expressive
• Sometimes self-centered
• Strong sense of identity
• Can be temperamental or self-absorbed at times
5. Investigator
• Innovative and highly perceptive
• Smart and logical and like to think deeply about things
• Quiet and thoughtfulness
• Objective and logical
• Detached and unemotional
6. Loyalist
• Tend to be responsible and committed
• Have long-lasting relationships
• Trustworthy and devoted
• Tends to worry and dwell on the negative
7. Enthusiast
• Spontaneous, fun-loving, and versatile
• Extraverted—they are social and love to meet new people
• Highly adventurous and are always on the lookout for fun
• Easily distracted and unfocused
• Quick thinking
• Good at maintaining a positive attitude
8. Challenger
• Bold, dominating, and confrontational
• Decisive and self-confident
• Often successful in leadership roles
• Sometimes be seen as domineering and aggressive
• Outspoken and action-oriented
9. Peacemaker
• Agreeable and easy-going
• Self-effacing and complacent at times
• Avoid conflict whenever possible
• Promote harmony in groups
• Dislikes disagreements
• May ignore their own wants and needs just to ensure peace
Uses of the Enneagram
The Enneagram works by sorting people into these nine different types. The goal is to give insight not only into the individual’s own personality but also to provide valuable information on how to better relate to other people.
Possible Applications
• Personal growth and development
• Interpersonal communication, team building, and leadership development
• Creating successful relationships at work and in other life areas
While the theory needs further research to validate its use, it has gained some popularity as a tool for building better relationships. By gaining insight into individual strengths and weaknesses, people can look for ways to better relate and communicate with their partners.
The Enneagram is also sometimes used within the field of industrial-organizational psychology to help improve employee motivation and productivity. Businesses utilize the test to help their employees gain a greater understanding of group dynamics and interpersonal communication.
The test has also become popular on social media as people share more about their results and explore their strengths and weaknesses.
Impact of the Enneagram
While critics note that the system is rooted more in a semi-mystical ancient philosophy than in scientifically valid research, there is some evidence that the Enneagram has a use as a personality tool:
• A study published in the Journal of Adult Development found that participants who took part in an Enneagram training program showed improvements in ego development and personal growth.2
• A year-long investigation carried out in 2004 by researchers Saville and Holdsworth found that the Enneagram was comparable to other well-known and more accepted theories including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Big Five.
• One case study published in the journal Contemporary Family Therapy suggested that the Enneagram could be a useful tool within the context of counseling, helping to facilitate therapy and promote awareness in the counseling relationship.3
While promising, further research is still needed to explore the Enneagram’s applicability and usefulness.
Tips for Using Enneagram Results
The Enneagram has become better known in recent years thanks in part to the rising popularity of online personality tests. Because the Enneagram addresses faults and weaknesses as well as strengths, it is often thought of as a tool for self-analysis and self-improvement. By recognizing these areas, people can work toward becoming more self-aware and achieving greater self-actualization.
There are a few important things you should remember when taking these tests:
• Personality is complex and a simple online test is not enough to tell you everything about your personality, motivations, behaviors, strengths, and weaknesses.
• Such tests can be fun and interesting, but be careful not to take your results too seriously.
• This sort of test can be a way to gain insight into your own personality and might be a starting point for gaining greater personal insight and self-awareness.

Potential Pitfalls of the Enneagram
There are a few pitfalls to watch for when taking an Enneagram test or reading more about your type:
• The Enneagram has gained popularity in some areas but has also been criticized for being pseudoscientific. It is often described as being overly vague and difficult to test scientifically.
• Type descriptions have been criticized for being too general, almost Barnum-effect style statements that can sometimes seem more like horoscopes rather than empirically tested descriptions of personality. (The Barnum effect is a psychological phenomenon in which people rate personality descriptions as being highly accurate and individualized, even when they are so vague they can apply to almost anyone).
• Not everyone agrees on how the system works. Some Enneagram theorists believe that personality is composed of a dominant type and one adjacent wing, while other theorists suggest that there are two wings. The official Enneagram site suggests that this is an area in need of further research.
It is also important to remember that the Enneagram does not suggest that any type is better or more desirable than another. Whether the traits associated with each type are seen as a help or a hindrance depends on the individual and their culture.
History of the Enneagram
The origins of the Enneagram are something of a mystery. It may date back to the time of the ancient Greeks, although its exact history is disputed. It is a synthesis of a number of different spiritual traditions, including elements of Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
A philosopher and mystic by the name of George Ivanovich Gurdjieff is credited with bringing the Enneagram figure to the attention of the world, although he did not use it to categorize personality types. Oscar Ichazo, the founder of a school for human potential and self-development, assigned different personality types to each of the nine positions in the Enneagram diagram.
Later, psychiatrist Claudio Naranjo expanded the theory to expand the nine types in psychological terms.

MULTITASKING

Multitasking is what we do when we deal with more than one task at the same time.

12 Tips to boost your multitasking skills
When managing a project, you have to deal with many tasks at the same time. A common solution is to use your multitasking skills and complete everything simultaneously. However, you will probably struggle as our brain isn’t built to handle more than one thing at once.
It gets tired, overwhelmed, and we find ourselves making mistakes. But there are ways to prevent it, and they start with following the 12 tips below so that you can boost those multitasking skills.
1. Accept your limits
To better manage task organization, be aware of your limits, especially those you can’t control. Your day has 24 hours. Your budget isn’t endless. Your resources are what they are. Above all, you have your own personality to respect. In other words, before deciding how to multitask, you need to draw a realistic picture of the scenario. Of course, you can always expand the above with the use of technology. Just keep in mind the number of projects or assignments you are truly capable of managing and completing within your working hours. Project after project, your understanding of it will develop, so see it as a work in progress.
2. Distinguish urgent from important
A flawless to-do list is one of the keys to good multitasking. And the secret behind it is a thorough understanding of the differences between urgent (tight deadlines) and important (long-term sustainability) matters.
For instance, try applying the Eisenhower’s Principle. It says you should prioritize your tasks in the following sequence:
1. Important and urgent;
2. Important but not urgent;
3. Not important but urgent;
4. Not important and not urgent.
The importance of the assignment sets the tone of your to-do-list, not the urgency. However, it doesn’t mean you must do your tasks always in this order. Some people use level 3 and 4 to create “breaks” between more relevant issues.
3. Learn to concentrate
Concentration is fundamental to multitasking. Productive people focus entirely on what they are doing in each given moment, then switch tasks. If it sounds difficult to you, here are some suggestions on how to accomplish it:
• Work on your willpower: Procrastination can make you waste time between assignments, especially if you don’t have a deadline coming soon. Make sure you know the importance of what you are doing, even if you need to set reminders on your phone.
• Try some meditation: Meditation is known for its ability to improve focus. There are several apps with great suggestions that can help you with it so that you won’t be bored – staying in silence in a dark room while paying attention to your breath is just one of its techniques.
• Take notes (or doodle): Specialists also suggest that engaging in handwriting activity during work can help you to stay on the right track. Some people take notes, others doodle. Pick your favourite.
4. Avoid distractions
If you think you can’t multitask at all, then you should know that you already are. Check your work environment. It’s likely to have some noise, such as background music or phones ringing, or you might be getting app notifications frequently. You still can do your work and deal with all the above happening around you, and this is multitasking. The problem is that too much external stimulation can become an issue, even if it comes from your duties. Nevertheless, not all distractions are bad. For instance, music helps some people to work better; others are energized by a chatty room.
To find a happy medium, do a test:
• List all interferences around you
• Eliminate them one by one: work in another area, or turn off your apps notifications, for instance.
• Observe the impact of their absence on your work
If your performance improves, it’s time to remove the factor in question from your working life. But if your mind is wandering, even more, put the “distraction” back to your routine.
5. Work in blocks of time
You might have heard that multitasking skills are a myth, that no one can do more than one task at the same time. Even though this isn’t entirely true (depending on what you call a task), the point here is being able to switch assignments. And you can achieve it by grouping your tasks and getting them done through separate blocks of time. For instance, adopt the Pomodoro Technique. It suggests that you work in 25-minute blocks, then take a short break after each block, followed by a longer break after every 4 blocks. However, this might not work for you if it forces you to stop at a critical stage.
The idea works because it’s easier to concentrate for 30 minutes than 1 hour. You just need to figure out the best time length for your project.
6. Work on related tasks together
Sometimes, you don’t have to switch assignments. You can work on more than one simultaneously if they are related.
For example:
• All research can be dealt with at once
• Hold a meeting to discuss several topics
• Prepare a single presentation to apply for a loan that will fund more than one project
It won’t always be so simple. You will need to look for other ways to group your tasks, such as carrying out all duties delegated to the same employee, or managing issues based on location, type of product, and so on. In any case, this approach has the extra advantage of presenting you the big picture so that you can transfer knowledge from one project to another.
7. Learn to supervise
Delegating is at the core of task organization. It allows you to assign to yourself the tasks matching your skill set and to supervise what is left, optimizing your time and increasing performance. But it also has a negative side. Your team will be reaching out to you, interrupting what you are doing to ask questions or to seek approval. If the demand is interfering with your productivity, go back to your to-do list and set time aside for it. Let your collaborators know when you will be available, and which situations are considered as emergencies.
8. Plan ahead
Once you become more confident in your ability to multitask, start planning your day ahead – either first thing on Monday morning, or last thing on Friday afternoon. You will then realize the following about most of your tasks:
• They repeat at regular intervals
• Some require more concentration than others
• Many of them relate to each other
This understanding will help you to switch assignments, offering the information you need to become better organized. Once you reach this stage, consider creating to-do lists one, two, three weeks beforehand – only remember to allocate time to attend last-minute requests. Soon, you will have monthly and annual calendars ready to make your days much more manageable.
9. Take breaks
As important as the time you spend being productive, are the minutes you save to rest. Taking breaks is a proven way to restart your mind so you can get back to work refreshed. Your body will also thank you for the opportunity to move around, preventing muscular tension and its damaging consequences. The length and frequency of your downtime will be defined by your personal choices, your line of work, and the task at hand. The usual recommendation is stopping for 15 minutes every hour, and never skipping lunch. But it’s also essential to pre-schedule your time off, so it’s set at regular intervals – especially if you are dealing with creative tasks.
10. Keep your brain sharp
Our brain is still a big mystery, but researchers agree we should try to find ways to keep our mind sharp. Among the techniques under investigation, game playing is one of the most popular because of its several concurring tasks, such as clicking on buttons, listening to instructions, and reacting to automated responses. If you want to stay offline, other suggestions are sports activities, dancing, or table games. Anything that involves doing more than one thing at the same time can help you to enhance your multitasking skills.
11. Keep your coffee addiction in check
Many workplaces have become temples of coffee addiction. You might have a cup full of it and a kitchen where you can get a refill nearby right now. However, while caffeine isn’t the villain many people used to think, drinking it too often can have a negative impact on multitasking skills.
An excessive amount of caffeine can raise your blood pressure, cause insomnia, and increase irritability. Its withdrawal effects can also lead to several issues, from headaches to anxiety. All this together can destroy your concentration and ability to switch tasks. So, yes, enjoy your coffee, but don’t let it interfere with your work.
12. Use online tools to keep you on track
To make the tips above easier for you, consider adopting an online tool. If all you need is a to-do list, there are many apps you can use for free. However, as a project manager, you probably need a more powerful project management tool, something that allows you to have all your projects, communications and their respective tasks in one place. Choose the best product based on the challenges you have identified. No project management tool is perfect, yet you want features able to tackle your most important concerns, such as communication, task management, and workflow.
Start improving your multitasking skills now
Efficient multitasking can be easily achieved if you understand its true meaning. You will be able to deal with more than one project as long as you aren’t trying to complete tasks at the same time. You should also count on online tools to enhance your capabilities and automate repetitive activities.

Finally, don’t put too much pressure on yourself. Like any other skill, multitasking is something you develop over time. Build it up step by step and learn from your mistakes. You will notice the positive results sooner than you expect.

TIME MANAGEMENT

Introduction
Time management is the process of organizing and planning how to divide your time between specific activities. Good time management enables you to work smarter – not harder – so that you get more done in less time, even when time is tight and pressures are high. Failing to manage your time damages your effectiveness and causes stress.
It seems that there is never enough time in the day. But, since we all get the same 24 hours, why is it that some people achieve so much more with their time than others? The answer lies in good time management.
The highest achievers manage their time exceptionally well. By using the time-management techniques in this section, you can improve your ability to function more effectively – even when time is tight and pressures are high.
Good time management requires an important shift in focus from activities to results: being busy isn’t the same as being effective. (Ironically, the opposite is often closer to the truth.) Spending your day in a frenzy of activity often achieves less, because you’re dividing your attention between so many different tasks. Good time management lets you work smarter – not harder – so you get more done in less time.
Time management refers to the way that you organize and plan how long you spend on specific activities. It may seem counter-intuitive to dedicate precious time to learning about time management, instead of using it to get on with your work, but the benefits are enormous:
• Greater productivity and efficiency.
• A better professional reputation.
• Less stress.
• Increased opportunities for advancement.
• Greater opportunities to achieve important life and career goals.
Failing to manage your time effectively can have some very undesirable consequences:
• Missed deadlines.
• Inefficient work flow.
• Poor work quality.
• A poor professional reputation and a stalled career.
• Higher stress levels.
Spending a little time learning about time-management techniques will have huge benefits now – and throughout your career.
Essential Time Management Skills and Strategies for Work
To get ahead in your career, deliver your projects successfully and to get a promotion or a pay rise, you must learn to consistently focus on the activities that add the most benefit to your projects and your clients. The better you are at maintaining focus and managing your time, the more you will achieve, and the easier it will be for you to leave the office on time. Not only do effective time management skills allow you to get better results at work, but it also help you withstand stress and live a more fulfilling life outside of work.
The following strategies will help you get the right things done in less time:
1. Plan your day in advance
Planning is the first, the best, and most proven of all time management techniques. Firstly, because it helps to properly organize your work. Secondly, because it gives you a detailed insight into all the things you need to do. If you can plan your daily, weekly, or monthly tasks, the rest comes easily.
There are many ways to plan and organize your work:
• Fancy calendars and personal organizers
• Time management apps and tools
• To-do-lists
• Post-it-notes, notepads, bullet journals, and other paper forms of time managers.
You can mix, combine and adjust different options to master your time management.
2. Allocate your time
Do you know how much time you spend on particular tasks? Gotcha! You’re probably among the majority of people who have no idea how much time they dedicate to activities every day. If you know how much of your time you allocate to tasks, projects, and different activities, you will be able to better organize your workday and workflow. The simplest way to do it is to use time tracking software. It will help you precisely predict future estimates and better allocate your time.
3. Start your day with a clear focus.
The first work-related activity of your day should be to determine what you want to achieve that day and what you absolutely must accomplish. Come clear on this purpose before you check your email and start responding to queries and resolve issues. Setting a clear focus for your day might require as little as five minutes, but can save you several hours of wasted time and effort.
4. Have a dynamic task list.
Capture the tasks and activities you must do on a list and update it regularly during the day. Revisit this list frequently and add new items as soon as they appear. Make sure your list gives you a quick overview of everything that’s urgent and important, and remember to include strategic and relationship-building activities as well as operational tasks.
5. Focus on high-value activities.
Before you start something new, identify the activity that would have the most positive effect on your project, your team, and your client if you were to deal with it right now. Resist the temptation to clear smaller, unimportant items first. Start with what is most important.
•To help you assess which activities to focus on first, ask the following:
• What does my client or my team need most from me right now?
• What will cause the most trouble if it doesn’t get done?
• What is the biggest contribution I can make right now?
• Which strategic tasks do I need to deal with today to help us work smarter tomorrow?
6. Minimize interruptions.
The more uninterrupted time you get during the day to work on important tasks, the more effective you’ll be. Identify the activities that tend to disrupt your work, and find a solution. Basically, one of the most essential time management skills is to not get distracted. For example, avoid checking emails and answering the phone when you’re in the middle of something important. Once you have broken your flow, it can be difficult to re-establish it. Instead, discipline yourself to work on a task single-mindedly until it’s complete.
7. Stop procrastinating.
If you have difficulties staying focused or tend to procrastinate, you may benefit from creating an external commitment for (deadline) yourself. For instance, schedule a meeting in two days’ time where you’ll be presenting your work and by which time your actions will have to be completed. It’s also very effective to complete the most unpleasant tasks early in the day and to allow yourself small rewards once you’ve completed them.
8. Review your day.
Spend 5-10 minutes reviewing your task list every day before you leave the office. Give yourself a pat on the back if you achieved what you wanted. If you think your day’s effort fell short, decide what you’ll do differently tomorrow in order to accomplish what you need to. Leave the office in high spirits determined to pick up the thread the next day.

EASY AND EFFECTIVE TIPS FOR SUCCESSFUL PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

The sum total of your qualities, quirks, characteristics, beliefs, attitudes and psychological traits comprises your personality. Thus, personality development would involve an enhancement in all the areas of your life./ A host of factors like heredity, environment, family and societal conditions play a role in influencing and shaping one’s personality. Therefore, one would have to work on all these areas to bring about a well-rounded development.
The whole process may take considerable effort, but you can start with these easy and effective techniques described below and observe a perceptible transformation in your whole personality. For those serious about bringing a positive holistic change in their life, personality development may turn out to be the most rewarding enterprise one can ever undertake.
1. Practice optimism and gratitude: Positivity is the key ingredient for a healthy and peaceful life. Expunging the negativity from your mind and life will improve your mental stability. Studies have shown positive thoughts to reduce depression and anxiety to a substantial level.
So, remember to practice gratitude and be thankful for all the small things and big things that you take for granted. You may not have the best shoes, but be grateful for your incredible feet that can take you anywhere anytime. There are many who lack even this basic luxury.
2. Be confident: Confidence is certainly the most important factor which adds to the personality of any individual. A person’s confidence might go down due to mistakes, failure, guilt or any other thing which is undesirable. Some people often develop inferiority complex due to their physical appearance, caste, financial status etc. Such people perceive confidence as their weakness, while the truth is that confidence is an individual s biggest strength.
Your confidence reflects your character, attitude and passion. You should be confident about who you are and whatever you do. Being confident will help you to express yourself and stand amongst the crowd. Confidence gives rise to self-motivation and makes one aware of their inner capabilities. Science shows that when people feel confident, the chemical changes in their brain lead to a point when they actually start believing in it. So, have confidence and know, whatever happens, you can handle it.
3. Communicate better: Good communication is the time-tested key to good interpersonal relationships. The way you speak reflects who you are. Be polite and gentle with your words. Use decent words while interacting with everyone. Always think before you speak. English being globally accepted is preferred everywhere. So work on your English proficiency by listening to English news, reading English newspapers and magazines. Always use simple words and general interactions. Clear communication can get one through adverse situations and resolve conflicts that might seem unsurpassable at first. So, clear your thoughts and make sure to communicate whatever needs to be said.
Listening is a very essential part of communication. This will help you to see things from the eyes of others. Mental presence is a must to be a good listener. Try to get away from any possible distraction while talking to your family members, friends and co-workers. Ask questions to let the other person know that you were listening to him/her.
4. Never quit in life: When people tend to lose hope and wisdom, they feel like quitting. To quit is one of the worst things a person can do while building their confidence or improving the quality of their life./ Remember, you owe it to yourself to take a second chance and accomplish that dream that keeps you up at night. And when you feel like quitting, as a wise man once said, “think about why you started”.
5. Don’t compare yourself to others: Every person has his own story. No two fingers are identical and the same applies to people. However, people have a tendency to focus on what others have achieved instead of seeing how far they have reached.
To achieve success, assess your abilities, analyse your situation and develop a plan that works for your goals.
6. Never run after perfection: Nobody in this world is born perfect. Every person has flaws within them. When faced with criticism, accept it when it’s positive and let it go when it’s not. Develop a habit of looking at your flaws objectively and work on them to eliminate them one step at a time.
7. Stay focussed: Developing focus helps people channelize their energy to the most critical aspects of their life. Decide your priorities and focus just on them. Know what matters most to you and avoid distractions that derail you from your goals.
8. Dress confidently: Dressing is an art. Everyone has flaws and feels incompetent from time to time. But dressing in what one feels comfortable and confident in can help them to tide over tough situations./ Dressing sense means the general sense about how you should dress up for office, party or any other occasion. A person should therefore wear according to the situation and according to how well the attire suits him/her. Good looks no doubt will add to your personality but what matters the most is how you are dressed up. Even a 5 4 guy with a dark complexion can have a good personality if he knows how to carry himself. Dressing sense thus plays a major role in personality and confidence development.
9. Be Passionate about What You Do: Always follow your passion and do what interests you. This will not only help you to grow as a person but will also add to your confidence. Be passionate about your work. Make sure that you give your best in whatever you do. This will add to your growth and strengthen your self-confidence. NEVER miss a chance to prove yourself.
10. Watch Your Body Language: Body language plays animportant role to judge a person’s confidence and personality. Try to make use of positive gestures while interacting with others. This shows that you are atease while having a discussion. Studies reflect that 75% of our communication happens non-verbally. Your gestures thus play a vital role while interacting with others.
11. Improve Your Social Skills: Man is a social animal. Every individual has to interact with a group of people one time or the other. Being shy or introverted is the least desirable characteristic in any individual. Always stay updated with the current affairs and what is happening in your society. Try participating in group discussions and seminars. This will help you to be more open and adjust amongst a group of individuals.
12. Develop Leadership Qualities: A good leader is believed to have a good personality. Leadership skills do not mean how well you give orders to your subordinates. It means how well you can manage your subordinates to accomplish a particular task. Work harder to set an example to your subordinates. Express yourself and always do as you say.
13. Be Positive & Optimistic: Have a positive outlook towards everything. Nobody wants to be around a person who is negative and complaining all the time. Nobody wants to work or live with a pessimist. When you face failure, let go of the assumption that you are the unluckiest person alive. Use positive statements like I can do it, I always have a choice etc. Expect good things from the future.
14. Be a Good Learner: Good learning skills in an individual are highly desirable. You should always have the zeal to learn new things while at work. This reflects your enthusiasm. Don t let yourself repeat the same mistakes. Learn from them. Here’s a famous quote by Eleanor Roosevelt: Learn from the mistakes of others. You can’t live long enough to make them all yourself, everyone makes mistakes, but learning from them is the best one can do. Working on the above mentioned characteristics will help you to be entitled as a person with a good personality.

PRESENTATION SKILL

Tips for Effective Presentations
Constantly practicing, refining and improving upon your presentation skills will not only make you a more confident individual, but you will find that you rise quicker to success in your career. However, having great presentation skills does not just affect your work-life. Great presentation skills are truly life skills that you should integrate into more areas than just the conference room.
Whether you are an experienced presenter, or just starting out, there should be ideas here to help you to improve.

1. Practice always makes perfect.
It doesn’t matter how well you know what you’re talking about, the moment you have to persuade, engage, or teach in front of an audience, you will probably stumble a bit. This is a natural reaction that affects pretty much everyone when all eyes are pointed in one direction and the anxiety sets in.
It’s important to remember that the overwhelming feeling of stress you probably feel is the result of your unfamiliarity with the situation, not from your lack of preparedness. The more comfortable you are with taking the stage and having everyone’s attention on you, the less nervous you’ll get. The greater confidence you have in your presentation skills will allow you to focus on what actually matters–which is the material that you’re presenting.
The best way to implement this practice is by starting off small. Prepare a presentation to give to your friends, family, or closest co-workers. This sounds easy, but you will learn that it’s not necessarily who is listening to you that causes nerves, but it’s the fact that all of the attention is on you. You’ll become more comfortable with the attention when you begin practicing in front of others more often, which will allow you to effectively present your ideas next time it’s your turn to speak in the conference room.
2. Show your Passion and Connect with your Audience
It’s hard to be relaxed and be yourself when you’re nervous. But time and again, the great presenters say that the most important thing is to connect with your audience, and the best way to do that is to let your passion for the subject shine through. Be honest with the audience about what is important to you and why it matters. Be enthusiastic and honest, and the audience will respond.
3. Focus on your Audience’s Needs
Your presentation needs to be built around what your audience is going to get out of the presentation. As you prepare the presentation, you always need to bear in mind what the audience needs and wants to know, not what you can tell them. While you’re giving the presentation, you also need to remain focused on your audience’s response, and react to that. You need to make it easy for your audience to understand and respond.
4. Keep it Simple and short:
When planning your presentation, you should always keep in mind the question: What is the key message (or three key points) for my audience to take away? You should be able to communicate that key message very briefly. Some experts recommend a 30-second ‘elevator summary’, others that you can write it on the back of a business card, or say it in no more than 15 words. Whichever rule you choose, the important thing is to keep your core message focused and brief. And if what you are planning to say doesn’t contribute to that core message, don’t say it.
Every single person’s time is valuable (especially at work), so don’t waste precious meeting time. If you can say everything you need to in half of the time that is allotted, you should do so. Ensure that you’re only sharing the most important information. All of the extra fluff will bore your audience and you will lose their attention very quickly.
It’s a great idea to wrap up your meeting with key takeaways and action items. Doing so will ensure that no matter how quickly your meeting ends, your team understands their next steps. You can send out a quick, summarizing slide deck or an easy to read one-pager for their reference later. These visuals will make sure all of your bases are covered and that everyone is on the same page upon leaving the meeting.
5. Smile and Make Eye Contact with your Audience
This sounds very easy, but a surprisingly large number of presenters fail to do it. If you smile and make eye contact, you are building rapport, which helps the audience to connect with you and your subject. It also helps you to feel less nervous, because you are talking to individuals, not to a great mass of unknown people. To help you with this, make sure that you don’t turn down all the lights so that only the slide screen is visible. Your audience needs to see you as well as your slides.
6. Start Strongly
The beginning of your presentation is crucial. You need to grab your audience’s attention and hold it. They will give you a few minutes’ grace in which to entertain them, before they start to switch off if you’re dull. So don’t waste that on explaining who you are. Start by entertaining them. Try a story (see tip 7 below), or an attention-grabbing (but useful) image on a slide. This is a tip from Guy Kawasaki of Apple. He suggests that slideshows should:
• Contain no more than 10 slides;
• Last no more than 20 minutes; and
• Use a font size of no less than 30 points.
This last is particularly important as it stops you trying to put too much information on any one slide. This whole approach avoids the dreaded ‘Death by PowerPoint’.
As a general rule, slides should be the sideshow to you, the presenter. A good set of slides should be no use without the presenter, and they should definitely contain less, rather than more, information, expressed simply.
If you need to provide more information, create a bespoke hand-out and give it out after your presentation.
7. Tell Stories
Human beings are programmed to respond to stories. Stories help us to pay attention, and also to remember things. If you can use stories in your presentation, your audience is more likely to engage and to remember your points afterwards. It is a good idea to start with a story, but there is a wider point too: you need your presentation to act like a story.
8. Use your Voice Effectively
The spoken word is actually a pretty inefficient means of communication, because it uses only one of your audience’s five senses. That’s why presenters tend to use visual aids, too. But you can help to make the spoken word better by using your voice effectively.
Varying the speed at which you talk, and emphasising changes in pitch and tone all help to make your voice more interesting and hold your audience’s attention.
9. Use your Body Too
It has been estimated that more than three quarters of communication is non-verbal. That means that as well as your tone of voice, your body language is crucial to getting your message across. Make sure that you are giving the right messages: body language to avoid includes crossed arms, hands held behind your back or in your pockets, and pacing the stage.
Make your gestures open and confident, and move naturally around the stage, and among the audience too, if possible.
10. Welcome questions and comments during your presentation
Be flexible throughout your presentation. Answer questions and respond to any comments your audience may have either through hand raising or an audience response tool. Don’t worry if it veers you off your script. Chances are if one person has a question or comment, the others in the room are thinking it too. Use this as an opportunity to prove how well you understand the material you’re presenting–your audience will take notice. Also, take some time out at the start or your presentation to ask your audience some icebreaker questions and slowly transition into the more important stuff. Taking this minute to talk through anything that your audience is thinking of is a good thing because it means they are engaged with you and really paying attention to the words coming out of your mouth. Doing so will also relax the format of your presentation, allowing you to feel more confident and relaxed as well.
11. Relax, Breathe and Enjoy
If you find presenting difficult, it can be hard to be calm and relaxed about doing it. One option is to start by concentrating on your breathing. Slow it down, and make sure that you’re breathing fully. Make sure that you continue to pause for breath occasionally during your presentation too.
If you can bring yourself to relax, you will almost certainly present better. If you can actually start to enjoy yourself, your audience will respond to that, and engage better. Your presentations will improve exponentially, and so will your confidence. It’s well worth a try.

12. Never stop refining your presentation skills
Possessing great presentation skills doesn’t come naturally to most people–it’s something that’s learned and practiced over time. As with most things in life, you must continuously work on refining your skills to get better and better.
Use these nine proven presentation tips that we covered in this article to improve your presentation skills. By doing so, you will find that presenting at your key meetings becomes easier and easier and you’ll begin to nail it every single time.

CAREER

Building a successful career takes time, effort, and patience. If you’re willing to sacrifice some free time and you’re willing to get out of your comfort zone, you will succeed. It’s not that hard, honestly. It just takes courage and commitment to follow everything that you’ve targeted.
Building your career is exciting because it provides an opportunity to shape your life in the way you want. It can also be scary when you do not know what it is that you want to do and when you are not sure how you can make a living. The more you are in charge of your process, the better you will feel.
Having a successful career will offer you a lot of benefits and real profitable opportunities. As we live in a world governed by social status and money, working your way up to the top will definitely improve your quality of life. There are many possible reasons for which an individual would desire success.
I guess one of the reasons is that maybe by being successful in your professional life makes you feel better among other people. It offers you a feeling of security and accomplishment. Many people who went from zero to a successful career have reported that their lives were improved in almost all the aspects.
There are certain habits and activities that successful people from all over the world do. The best way of approaching success is by following and figuring out what are the strategies that professionals use, and model them according to your needs.
The following strategies will give you enough boosts to improve your career:
1. Identify with Your Goals
Before even considering following a career route, you must get to know yourself. A big majority of people go through life by following a well-established pattern. The sad part is, they don’t even like what they do or they just don’t really realize how many other things they could do.

In order to avoid this awful happening, you need to identify what are your biggest rational wishes. Then, start going deeper and make an in-depth introspection in which you should think about the connection between your inner desires and your rational goals.
They have to match. Otherwise, you will not be truly fulfilled with your professional life. Identifying with your goals takes some time and effort, but it is a truly important process in any successful person’s journey.
2. Build a Professional Resume
Your resume is basically your way of saying “I’m good at this, good at that, and I can help by doing this and that”. Well, that is why you should create a professional, neat resume.
By taking care of this aspect, you are making sure that you’ll never be caught off guard. Opportunities are everywhere, and you should always be ready with a quality resume. I believe that letting professionals deal with your resume is a productive choice.
There are some amazing services like Careers Booster or Visual CV that can take care of your problem. They can help you to create a classic or an impressive visual resume.
3. Become Aware of Your Strengths
Awareness is an essential key to personal improvement. By being aware of your inner thoughts, your strengths, your desires, and your disadvantages, you can adapt your life to whatever conditions you’re being put through. You’ll also get many benefits as you can leverage your knowledge and wisdom for the best purposes.
It’s better if you choose your long term profession according to what you know about yourself. Are you a patient person? Would you be able to sit eight to twelve hours in an office working on a computer? Or you’d rather be a football coach because you’re truly passionate about football and you believe you could be an efficient trainer?
No matter your strengths and disadvantages, you should choose a career path that advantages your traits and qualities.
4. Assume Full Responsibility for Your Life
One difference between mediocre and successful professionals: responsibility. Even though you know the concept, you may not apply it every day. Whenever something bad happens, you need to assume it.
Even if you haven’t done anything wrong, being there, the previous choices you’ve made (like trusting someone), these are still all factors which have been influenced by your thoughts and actions.
Start assuming responsibility for all of your actions and never blame anyone for your mistakes. That’s the worst thing someone can do. Do not take things personally, and be calm.

5. Always Raise Your Standards
Here’s another critical factor which differentiates the successful from the non-successful. Your standards influence the way you think, believe, and behave. If your standards are high, you’ll never be satisfied with less than you can accomplish. People with high standards are most of the times more successful than the average.
Every two or three months take a moment to reflect upon your standards and values. Try to improve them bit by bit up until you realize that you’ve become the best version of yourself.
6. Brand Yourself
Branding is very important nowadays. Big companies are spending hundreds of millions in order to establish themselves as the “big dogs” in the marketplace. It is an old business strategy used by almost every professional company. Your branding is your image in the marketplace. Professional employees should brand their names and services and constantly improve it. You can do that by starting a blog, creating a professional social media profile, or simply by providing awesome services.
7. Network — A LOT
Networking is all about opportunities and connections. When you meet new people, you basically get a chance to use their skills to your advantage. Of course, you must also give back something: your services, your knowledge, your money. Successful people always network and create those life-lasting profitable relationships.
Start by creating social media profiles on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook. These three specific networks are the best choices when it comes to this type of activity. You’ll find lots of opportunities and career choices along the way.
LinkedIn, for example, is filled with business professionals that are branding their companies and also networking in the same time. Twitter is also very used in these matters, and Facebook… Facebook is good for everything, including networking.
And here’s another insight: networking does not have to be scary. Think of networking as connecting with another person so that the two of you are in sync and are relevant to each other. Yes, you have something to contribute! People are always looking for talent and those big executives/stars were once beginners just like you.

CURRICULUM VITAE (CV)

What is a CV?
Your CV, short for curriculum vitae, is a personal marketing document used to sell yourself to prospective employers. It should tell them about you, your professional history and your skills, abilities and achievements. Ultimately, it should highlight why you’re the best person for the job. A CV is required when applying for a job. In addition to your CV, employers may also require a cover letter and a completed application form.

Top tips to structure your CV
Your CV is the first point of contact between you and your next potential employer. It should be succinct and presented in an easy to read format using a simple font, minimal styling and the use of bullet points to break down information.
To ensure your CV stands out, follow our recommended structure and tips below:
1. Start with name, address and contact details
List the main contact details prospective employers will be able to reach you on easily at anytime. Ensure the details are presented clearly and feature prominently at the top of your CV. Include a link to your up to date LinkedIn profile within your introductory details.
2. Introduce yourself
This is where you should summarise and highlight what you can offer to a prospective employer. Summarise any career highlights that will draw attention to what you have accomplished. It should be tailored for each role you apply for and aim to make you stand out from competition.
3. Summarise your skills
Use brief bullet points to list the skills and experience you have that are specific and relevant to the role. Hiring managers will scan this section of your CV very quickly to see what you can offer and your suitability for the role.
4. Highlight relevant experience
This section should include your work history in most recent historical order including paid work, relevant volunteer or work experience placements. It is important to tailor this section of your CV to the job, specifically where key responsibilities in previous roles are applicable for your application.
5. Shout about your achievements
Your CV is your opportunity to sell yourself and highlight why you are the best fit the role, so it is important to include where you have gone above and beyond or made a significant achievement.
Where the achievements are measurable be sure to include the numbers, such as increased sales over target by 10%.
6. List any training, education and courses
Only list what is relevant or required for the role you are applying for, starting with most recent. It is important to showcase where you may have up-skilled or could bring new knowledge to the organisation.

7. Mention any interests/hobbies (optional)
This is where you can highlight your personality in any hobbies or interests outside of work. Note, it is optional to include this on your CV and it is best to avoid stating anything that could cause friction early on.
8. References are available on request
It is fine to list references are available on request if you are not comfortable disclosing your referees until further into the recruitment process. It is important to make sure you have them readily available and contactable when requested.
Final top five tips
1. Use the right ‘keywords’ to ensure your CV is picked up in word searches
2. Explain any gaps in your CV, and be sure to highlight the skills that you have developed
3. Don’t include acronyms or organisation related terminology
4. Include two forms of contact, email and mobile
5. Spelling and grammar check – ensure you check your CV thoroughly for any spelling and grammar errors. Perhaps even consider having a friend or family member check it over for you as well.
10 steps to a successful CV
Writing a good CV can be one of the toughest challenges of job hunting. Most employers spend just a few seconds scanning each CV before sticking it in the ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ pile.
Here are the top 10 tips for writing a CV that’ll secure the all-important interview:
1. Keep it real!
Usually a CV should be no more than two pages – and that’s two pages of A4 paper! Employers spend, an average, just 8 seconds looking at any one CV, and a sure-fire way of landing yourself on the no pile is to send them your entire life story. Keep it punchy, to the point, and save those niggly little details for the interview.
2. Tailor it
We’ve all done it. Whizzed the same CV out to lots of employers to save time… Stop! Take the time to change your CV for each role that you apply for. Research the company and use the job advert to work out EXACTLY what skills you should point out to them. They will appreciate the obvious effort.
3. Include a personal statement
Don’t just assume an employer will see how your experience relates to their job. Instead, use a short personal statement to explain why you are the best person for the job. This should be reflected in your cover letter as well see our tips to the perfect cover letter
4. Don’t leave gaps
We are a cynical bunch and leaving obvious gaps on your CV immediately makes employers suspicious – and they won’t give you the benefit of the doubt. If you’ve been out of work it can be a worry but just put a positive spin on it. Did you do a course, volunteer work or develop soft skills such as communication, teamwork or project management? If so, shout about it! For more information, check out our CV template for the currently unemployed.
5. Keep it current
You should keep your CV up-to-date whether you’re looking for a job or not. Every time something significant occurs in your career, record it so you don’t later forget something that could be important.
6. The error of your ways
Employers DO look for mistakes on CVs and if they find them, it makes you look really bad. David Hipkin, head of recruitment and resourcing at Reed Business Information, warns, ‘With most employers experiencing massive volumes of applicants right now, giving them the excuse to dismiss your application because of avoidable errors is not going to help you secure an interview.’ If you’re unsure then use a spellchecker and ask someone else to double-check what you’ve written. And don’t ignore the most common CV mistakes.
7. Tell the truth
Everyone lies on their CV, right? NO! Stop! Blatant lies on your CV can land you in a whole heap of trouble when it comes to employers checking your background and references. The last thing you want is to start work and then lose your new job for lying. You also may get caught out at the interview stage when you suddenly can’t answer questions on what you claim to know. And that can be VERY awkward!
8. The maths
This may sound dull but by backing up your achievements with numbers it makes selling yourself much easier. When writing your work history, don’t just say that you increased sales; tell them you increased sales by 70% over a six month period. Get it? Big numbers are especially good (although don’t forget point 7 of our list!).
9. Make it look good
We live in a world where image is everything, and that also goes for your CV. Take some time to pretty it up… Use bullet points and keep sentences short. Use the graphic design trick of leaving plenty of white space around text and between categories to make the layout easy on the eye. Alternatively, get creative with your job application!
10. Make it keyword friendly
If you’ve uploaded your CV to a job site so recruiters can find you, keywords are very important. Job titles and job buzzwords will help a search engine pick out your CV from the pile. Confused? Don’t be. A marketing candidate might mention SEO (Search Engine Optimization), direct marketing and digital marketing among their experience and skills, for example… If you’re not sure, have a search online and see what words are commonly mentioned when you input your job title.

PHONE INTERVIEWS

The goal of a phone interview is an invitation to come to the employer’s location for an in-person interview. Phone interviews are typically called “phone screens” by the employer because they are screening candidates. These interviews are short, usually less than 30 minutes and may be as short as 10 minutes.
Phone Interview Tips

While you’re job searching, it’s important to be prepared for a phone interview at a moment’s notice. Many companies start the interview process with a phone call to discuss the job opportunity with a prospective employee, determine whether the candidate is a good fit, and to gauge his or her interest in the position. In some cases, a phone interview may be the only interview you’ll have.

In many cases, your interview will be scheduled in advance by email or phone. In others, you may receive a surprise phone call asking whether you’re available to chat about the job. You never know when a recruiter or a networking contact might call and ask whether you have a few minutes to talk, so always answer the phone professionally, especially if the number is unfamiliar. You should also make sure that your voicemail message is professional.
Why Companies Use Phone Interviews?
Employers use telephone interviews as a way of identifying and recruiting candidates for employment. Phone interviews are often used to screen candidates to narrow the pool of applicants who will be invited for in-person interviews. A phone call is a relatively quick, low-effort way to determine whether a candidate is suitable. They are also used to minimize the expense involved in interviewing out-of-town candidates. For remote positions, a phone interview may be the only option.
Prepare for a Phone Interview
Before you get on the telephone to interview for a job, review these phone interview tips and techniques so you can ace the interview and make it to the next round.

Research the Company
If you have advance notice of the interview, make sure to review the job description and do a bit of research on the company.
Prepare in Advance
Prepare for a phone interview just as you would for a regular in-person interview. Compile a list of your strengths and weaknesses, as well as a list of answers to typical phone interview questions.
• What are you looking for in your next job?
• What are your salary expectations?
• What are you looking for in terms of company culture and benefits?
• If you were offered this job, when would you be able to start?
• What is your availability for an in-person interview in the next few days?
• If the job is out of state, are you willing to relocate?
• Why are you looking to leave your current company or make a career change?

This last one can be hard to answer. Be honest but stay positive. Companies are looking for problem solvers and people who overcome tough situations. For example, if you don’t mesh with your manager and believe it’s decreasing your chances of being promoted, you could say “I’m looking to join an organisation with more opportunity for growth and professional development.”

Show the Employer You’re a Match
Take the time to match your qualifications to the job description so that you can speak to why you’re a strong candidate for the position. Review your resume as well. Know the dates when you held each of your previous jobs, and what your responsibilities were.

Have Your Job Materials Nearby
You should feel comfortable and ready to discuss your background and skills confidently during a phone conversation. Have a copy of your resume nearby, so that you can refer to it during the interview. Also have a copy of the job posting and a copy of your cover letter if you sent one.
Consider creating a draft email or a new Word or Google file with all of the relevant information. That way, you’ll have all the details—notes on the company, key points you want to emphasize during the interview, your cover letter, the job posting, and so on—in one spot.
Practice Interviewing
Talking on the phone isn’t as easy as it seems. As with an in-person interview, practice can be helpful. Not only will this help you rehearse answers to common phone interview questions, it will also help you realize if you have a lot of verbal tics, fail to enunciate, or speak too quickly or too slowly.

For practice, have a friend or family member conduct a mock interview and record it so you can see how you sound over the phone. Once you have a recording, you’ll be able to hear your “ums” and “uhs” and “okays” so you can practice reducing them from your conversational speech. It will also help you spot if you have a bad habit of interrupting or rambling.

Additionally, listening to the recording will help you pinpoint answers that you can improve. If you don’t have someone who can help, practice answering your own questions. You don’t need to memorize answers, but having a sense of what you’re going to say will help reduce your nerves and make your responses sound more natural.
Get Ready for the Call
Before the call, confirm all the details, including the date, time, and who you will be talking to. Be sure you know whether the interviewer is calling you or if you need to make the call.
If something goes wrong and you miss the call, or the recruiter doesn’t call on time, take a deep breath and try to stay calm. You should be able to get the call back on track or reschedule if need be.
Use a quiet, comfortable, and private space with no distractions so you can focus on the interview. If you’ll be using your cellphone, make sure it’s fully charged, and you are in a spot with good reception for the call. You may also find that standing during an interview helps you sound more energetic during the call.
Proper Phone Interview Etiquette
Review these guidelines for appropriate phone interview etiquette, so you make the best impression on your interviewer.

Answer the phone yourself. First, be sure to let family members and/or roommates know you are expecting a call. When you answer the phone, respond with your name. You can say, “This is Jane Doe” or “John Smith speaking!” That way, the interviewer will know they’ve reached the right person. Make sure to use an upbeat tone of voice (try smiling as you speak).

Follow the interviewer’s lead. Some interviewers may wish to engage in a few minutes of small talk. Others may want to get right into the interview. Let the interviewer steer the start to the conversation, but be prepared to talk about the weather or make other small talk.

Listen carefully to the interviewer and don’t start speaking until the interviewer finishes the question. If you have something you want to say, jot it down on your notepad and mention it when it’s your turn to talk. It can also be helpful to jot down the question (or at least some keywords).

Don’t worry if you need a few seconds to think of a response, but don’t leave too much dead air. If you need the interviewer to repeat the question, ask.
Tips for Acing a Phone Interview
Follow these tips for a successful phone interview:

Create a checklist. Review the job posting and make a list of how your qualifications match the hiring criteria. Have the list available so you can glance at it during the interview.

Have your resume handy. Keep your resume in clear view (either on the top of your desk, or tape it to the wall) so it’s at your fingertips when you need to answer questions.

Be prepared to take notes. Have a pen and paper handy for note taking.

Don’t get interrupted. Turn off call waiting so your call isn’t interrupted. Put your cellphone on “Do not disturb” so you won’t hear beeps or buzzes from apps, text messages, and so on.

Reschedule if you have to. If the call wasn’t scheduled, and isn’t at a convenient time, ask if you could talk at another time and suggest some alternatives.

Clear the room. Evict the kids and the pets. Turn off the stereo and the TV. Close the door.
Do’s and Don’ts During the Call
• Do use Mr. or Ms., followed by the interviewer’s last name. Only use their first name if they ask you to.
• Don’t smoke, chew gum, eat, or drink.
• Do keep a glass of water handy, though. There’s nothing worse than having a tickle in your throat or a cough starting when you need to talk on the phone. Have a glass of water ready so you can take a quick sip if your mouth gets dry.
• Do smile. Smiling will project a positive image to the listener and will change the tone of your voice. It can also be helpful to stand during the interview, since this typically gives your voice more energy and enthusiasm.
• Do focus, listen, and enunciate. It’s important to focus on the interview, which can be harder on the phone than in-person. Be sure to listen to the question, ask for clarification if you’re not sure what the interviewer is asking, and speak slowly, carefully, and clearly when you respond. It’s fine to take a few seconds to compose your thoughts before you answer.
• Don’t interrupt the interviewer.
• Do take your time. It’s perfectly acceptable to take a moment or two to collect your thoughts.
• Do take notes. It’s hard to remember what you discussed after the fact, so take brief notes during the interview.
• Do give short answers. It’s important to stay focused on the questions and your responses.
• Do have questions ready to ask the interviewer. Be prepared to respond when the interviewer asks whether you have any questions for him or her. Review these questions to ask the interviewer and have a few ready in advance.
Do remember that your goal is to set up a face-to-face interview. At the end of your conversation, after you thank the interviewer, ask if it would be possible to meet in person.
Follow-Up After the Interview
As the interview winds down, make sure to say thank you to the interviewer:
• Ask for the interviewer’s email address, if you don’t already have it.
• Send out an email thank-you note immediately, thanking the interviewer and reiterating your interest in the job.
• You can also use your thank-you note as a way to provide information on anything regarding your qualifications that you didn’t get a chance to mention during the phone interview.
When the interview is over, carefully review any notes you were able to take during the conversation. Jot down what types of question you were asked, how you responded, and any follow-up questions you may have if you have an opportunity for an in-person interview or a second-round phone interview—or even a job offer.

TIPS FOR FACE TO FACE JOB INTERVIEWS

Making a great impression and demonstrating your best qualities during an interview increases your chances of getting a job offer. By preparing for the interview and following certain steps afterward, you can impress the hiring team and make them remember you.
1. Research the industry and company.
An interviewer may ask how you perceive his company’s position in its industry, who the firm’s competitors are, what its competitive advantages are, and how it should best go forward. For this reason, avoid trying to thoroughly research a dozen different industries. Focus your job search on just a few industries instead.
All firms have different ways of interviewing, so find out what type you should expect. Some will ask brainteasers, case questions or typical interview questions. Most will ask specific questions about the role, and you may need to solve a problem or complete a daily task. Ask the human resources manager what you can expect so you can adequately prepare.
2. Clarify your “selling points” and the reasons you want the job.
Prepare to go into every interview with three to five key selling points in mind, such as what makes you the best candidate for the position. Have an example of each selling point prepared (“I have good communication skills. For example, I persuaded an entire group to …”). And be prepared to tell the interviewer why you want that job – including what interests you about it, what rewards it offers that you find valuable, and what abilities it requires that you possess. If an interviewer doesn’t think you’re really, really interested in the job, he or she won’t give you an offer – no matter how good you are!
Employers prefer to hire applicants who come with questions. They are interested in finding out about your seriousness in working with their company. Following are some of the questions you can ask your interviewers:
• Can I know some of the daily responsibilities of this position?
• What qualities would you expect in someone successful in this role?
• How do you measure performance for this position? How often?
• What departments does your team interact with regularly?
• What do these departments use to collaborate?
• How does this process work?
• What challenges are you currently facing in this role?
3. Anticipate the interviewer’s concerns and reservations. Read the job description more than twice
Highlight specific sections and skills that seem to be the most important. Recall examples from your current and past work that match the requirements. This helps you show how you would be a good fit for the job, which is what interviewers expect.
There are always more candidates for positions than there are openings. So interviewers look for ways to screen people out. Put yourself in their shoes and ask yourself why they might not want to hire you (“I don’t have this,” “I’m not that,” etc.). Then prepare your defence: “I know you may be thinking that I might not be the best fit for this position because [their reservation]. But you should know that [reason the interviewer shouldn’t be overly concerned].”
4. Prepare for common interview questions.
Every “how to interview” book has a list of a hundred or more “common interview questions.” (You might wonder just how long those interviews are if there are that many common questions!) So how do you prepare? Pick any list and think about which questions you’re most likely to encounter, given your age and status (about to graduate, looking for a summer internship). Then prepare your answers so you won’t have to fumble for them during the actual interview.
5. Line up your questions for the interviewer.
Come to the interview with some intelligent questions for the interviewer that demonstrate your knowledge of the company as well as your serious intent. Interviewers always ask if you have any questions, and no matter what, you should have one or two ready. If you say, “No, not really,” he or she may conclude that you’re not all that interested in the job or the company. A good all-purpose question is, “If you could design the ideal candidate for this position from the ground up, what would he or she be like?”
If you’re having a series of interviews with the same company, you can use some of your prepared questions with each person you meet (for example, “What do you think is the best thing about working here?” and “What kind of person would you most like to see fill this position?”) Then, try to think of one or two others during each interview itself.
6. Practice, practice, practice.
It’s one thing to come prepared with a mental answer to a question like, “Why should we hire you?” It’s another challenge entirely to say it out loud in a confident and convincing way. The first time you try it, you’ll sound garbled and confused, no matter how clear your thoughts are in your own mind! Do it another 10 times, and you’ll sound a lot smoother and more articulate.
But you shouldn’t do your practicing when you’re “on stage” with a recruiter; rehearse before you go to the interview. The best way to rehearse? Get two friends and practice interviewing each other in a “round robin”: one person acts as the observer and the “interviewee” gets feedback from both the observer and the “interviewer.” Go for four or five rounds, switching roles as you go. Another idea (but definitely second-best) is to tape record your answer and then play it back to see where you need to improve. Whatever you do, make sure your practice consists of speaking aloud. Rehearsing your answer in your mind won’t cut it.
7. Score a success in the first five minutes.
Some studies indicate that interviewers make up their minds about candidates in the first five minutes of the interview – and then spend the rest of the interview looking for things to confirm that decision! So what can you do in those five minutes to get through the gate? Come in with energy and enthusiasm, and express your appreciation for the interviewer’s time. (Remember: She may be seeing a lot of other candidates that day and may be tired from the flight in. So bring in that energy!) Also, start off with a positive comment about the company – something like, “I’ve really been looking forward to this meeting [not “interview”]. I think [the company] is doing great work in [a particular field or project], and I’m really excited by the prospect of being able to contribute.”
8. Get on the same side as the interviewer.
Many interviewers view job interviews as adversarial: Candidates are going to try to pry an offer out of the interviewer, and the interviewer’s job is to hold onto it. Your job is to transform this “tug of war” into a relationship in which you’re both on the same side. You could say something as simple as, “I’m happy to have the chance to learn more about your company and to let you learn more about me, so we can see if this is going to be a good match or not. I always think that the worst thing that can happen is to be hired into a job that’s wrong for you – then nobody’s happy!”

9. Be assertive and take responsibility for the interview.
Perhaps out of the effort to be polite, some usually assertive candidates become overly passive during job interviews. But politeness doesn’t equal passivity. An interview is like any other conversation – it’s a dance in which you and a partner move together, both responding to the other. Don’t make the mistake of just sitting there waiting for the interviewer to ask you about that Nobel Prize you won. It’s your responsibility to make sure he walks away knowing your key selling points.
10. Be ready to handle illegal and inappropriate questions.
Interview questions about your race, age, gender, religion, marital status, and sexual orientation are inappropriate and in many areas illegal. Nevertheless, you may get one or more of them. If you do, you have a couple of options. You can simply answer with a question (“I’m not sure how that’s relevant to my application”), or you can try to answer “the question behind the question”: “I don’t know whether I’ll decide to have children in the near future, but if you’re wondering if I’ll be leaving my job for an extended period of time, I can say that I’m very committed to my career and frankly can’t imagine giving it up.”
11. Make your selling points clear.
If a tree falls in the forest and no one is there to hear it, did it make a sound? More important, if you communicate your selling points during a job interview and the interviewer doesn’t get it, did you score? On this question, the answer is clear: No! So don’t bury your selling points in long-winded stories. Instead, tell the interviewer what your selling point is first, then give the example.
12. Think positive.
No one likes a complainer, so don’t dwell on negative experiences during an interview. Even if the interviewer asks you point blank, “What courses have you liked least?” or “What did you like least about that previous job?” don’t answer the question. Or more specifically, don’t answer it as it’s been asked. Instead, say something like, “Well, actually I’ve found something about all of my classes that I’ve liked. For example, although I found [class] to be very tough, I liked the fact that [positive point about the class]” or “I liked [a previous job] quite a bit, although now I know that I really want to [new job].”
13. Close on a positive note.
If a salesman came to you and demonstrated his product, then thanked you for your time and walked out the door, what did he do wrong? He didn’t ask you to buy it! If you get to the end of an interview and think you’d really like that job, ask for it! Tell the interviewer that you’d really, really like the job – that you were excited about it before the interview and are even more excited now, and that you’re convinced you’d like to work there. If there are two equally good candidates at the end of the search – you and someone else – the interviewer will think you’re more likely to accept the offer, and thus may be more inclined to make an offer to you.

Even better, take what you’ve learned about yourself from your My Path career assessment and use it to explain why you think this is the job for you: “I’ve done some careful career self-assessment, and I know that I’m most interested in [one or two of your most important career interest themes], and – correct me if I’m wrong – it seems that this position would allow me to express those interests. I also know that I’m most motivated by [two or three of your most important motivators from your My Path assessment], and I have the sense that if I do well, I could get those rewards in this position.
Finally, I know that my strongest abilities are [two or three of your strongest abilities from your My Path assessment], and I see those as being the abilities you most need for this position.” If you follow this tip, you’ll be (a) asking for the job, (b) explaining why you think it’s a good match, (c) displaying your thoughtfulness and maturity, and (d) further disarming the tug-of-war dynamic that interviewers anticipate. You’ll be making the strongest possible “close” – and that’s worth a lot!
14. Bring a copy of your resume to every interview.
Have a copy of your resume with you when you go to every interview. If the interviewer has misplaced his or her copy, you’ll save a lot of time (and embarrassment on the interviewer’s part) if you can just pull your extra copy out and hand it over.
15. Don’t worry about sounding “canned”.
Some people are concerned that if they rehearse their answers, they’ll sound “canned” (or overly polished or glib) during the interview. Don’t worry. If you’re well prepared, you’ll sound smooth and articulate, not canned. And if you’re not so well prepared, the anxiety of the situation will eliminate any “canned” quality.
16. Make the most of the “Tell me about yourself” question.
Many interviewers begin interviews with this question. So how should you respond? You can go into a story about where you were born, what your parents do, how many brothers and sisters and dogs and cats you have, and that’s okay. But would you rather have the interviewer writing down what kind of dog you have – or why the company should hire you?
Consider responding to this question with something like: “Well, obviously I could tell you about lots of things, and if I’m missing what you want, please let me know. But the three things I think are most important for you to know about me are [your selling points]. I can expand on those a little if you’d like.” Interviewers will always say, “Sure, go ahead.” Then you say, “Well, regarding the first point, [give your example]. And when I was working for [company], I [example of another selling point].” Etc. This strategy enables you to focus the first 10-15 minutes of the interview on all of your key selling points. The “Tell me about yourself” question is a golden opportunity. Don’t miss it!
17. Answer questions using the STAR method
Expect the employer to ask you about how you applied a specific skill in your previous job. Tell stories using the STAR method:
• Situation: Describe a specific challenge you faced.
• Task: Explain your role in the situation.
• Action: Detail the steps you took to overcome the challenge.
• Result: Explain the results you achieved, including anything you learned.
18. Speak the right body language.
Dress appropriately, make eye contact, give a firm handshake, have good posture, speak clearly, and don’t wear perfume or cologne! Sometimes interview locations are small rooms that may lack good air circulation. You want the interviewer paying attention to your job qualifications — not passing out because you’ve come in wearing Chanel No. 5 and the candidate before you was doused with Brut, and the two have mixed to form a poisonous gas that results in you not getting an offer!
19. Be ready for “behaviour-based” interviews”.
One of the most common interview styles today is to ask people to describe experiences they have had that demonstrate behaviours that the company thinks are important for a particular position. You might be asked to talk about a time when you made an unpopular decision, displayed a high level of persistence, or made a decision under time pressure and with limited information, for example.
Step 1 is to anticipate the behaviours this hiring manager is likely to be looking for. Step 2 is to identify at least one example of when you demonstrated each behaviour. Step 3 is to prepare a story for each example. Many people recommend using SAR (Situation-Action-Result) as a model for the story. Step 4 is to practice telling the story. Also, make sure to review your resume before the interview with this kind of format in mind; this can help you to remember examples of behaviours you may not have anticipated in advance.
20. Send thank-you notes.
Write a thank-you note after every interview. Type each note on paper or send them by email, depending on the interviewers’ preferences. Customize your notes by referring specifically to what you and the interviewer discussed; for example, “I was particularly excited about [or interested by, or glad to hear] what you said about …” Handwritten notes might be better if you’re thanking a personal contact for helping you in your job search, or if the company you’re interviewing with is based in Europe. Whatever method you choose, notes should be sent within 48 hours of the interview.
To write a good thank-you note, you’ll need to take time after each interview to jot down a few things about what the interviewer said. Also, write down what you could have done better in the interview, and make adjustments before you head off for your next interview.
21. Don’t give up!
If you’ve had a bad interview for a job that you truly think would be a great fit for you (not just something you want badly), don’t give up! Write a note, send an email, or call the interviewer to let him or her know that you think you did a poor job of communicating why you think this job would be a good match. Reiterate what you have to offer the company, and say that you’d like an opportunity to contribute. Whether this strategy will get you a job offer depends on the company and on you. But one thing’s for sure: If you don’t try, your chances are exactly zero. We’ve seen this approach work on numerous occasions, and we encourage you to give it that last shot.
Tips to follow during the interview
After preparing for the interview, you can be successful by following these steps:
1. Arrange your interview dress the night before
If you get in touch with the human resources manager before the interview, ask them about their dress code and prepare accordingly. If you’re unsure of how to dress, research the company online to see what employees seem to wear on a daily basis. Choose business professional dress if you can’t find any information on the dress code.
2. Bring your resume copies, a pen and a notebook
Have a minimum of five printed copies of your resume to hand out during the interview. Highlight your job-related accomplishments on a copy that you keep and refer to. Bring a notebook and a pen with you. Be prepared to take notes in your notebook instead of a smartphone or any other electronic device. Write down the information that you can reference when sending thank-you notes.
3. Make your schedule to arrive 10 to 15 minutes early
Find out the directions to your interview location ahead of time to ensure that you are there on time. Do a practice run in whatever method of transportation you plan to use. If you get there early, spend some time observing employees and how they interact with each other to see what the atmosphere is like.
4. Leave a positive first impression
Be mindful of the little things—check your clothes for loose threads, pet hair, stains or holes, keep your nails clean and tidy and polish your shoes. Maintain a smile and a confident body language throughout the interview.
5. Respect everyone you meet
Some interviewers ask for feedback from other staff members. This includes the front desk staff, security personnel and others. Therefore, respect everyone you meet on the way to the interview. Not only does this help employers make a hiring decision, but it also starts building connections with the people you might work with.
6. Be confident
Look confident and accessible the moment you enter the premises. Sit or stand upright. Build self-confidence and release anxiety and stress by taking deep, slow breaths. When the interviewer offers a handshake, stand upright, look at the person confidently and smile. Be firm in your handshake.
7. Be positive and authentic
Being authentic during interview conversations helps employers relate to you. A smile and positive body language can help you feel relaxed when speaking with interviewers.
8. Be truthful in your answers
It can be tempting to overstate your accomplishments and skills, however, interviewers prefer and respect honesty. Stay focused on your major strengths and explain how your background qualifies you for the position.
9. Relate your answers to your accomplishments and skills
Make sure to answer a question by relating it to your previous job experience with examples of results and solutions you have achieved. Use the STAR method to tell stories that detail your process and achievements. Relate every opportunity to the requirements in the job specification.
10. Be concise and focused in your answers
Interviewers are usually busy and only have a limited amount of time for each interview, so keep your responses concise. Stay focused by practising your answers ahead of time.
11. Speak positively about your former employers
Instead of offering negative input, direct your discussion on what you have gained from previous work experiences and what you plan to do next. Companies prefer hiring problem solvers who can overcome difficult situations.

Helpful tips after the interview
After the interview, improve your chances of moving ahead by following the tips below:
1. Ask for the next steps
After the interview, it is better to ask your recruiter, hiring manager or interviewer about what you should expect in the following week. They will possibly send you a follow-up email with your interview results and a request for additional requirements like a reference list, an assignment or another interview.
2. Follow up with a personalized thank-you email
Request a business card from each of your interviewers to send them a personalized thank-you email. If your interview was in the morning, email your thank-you note the same day. If your interview was in the afternoon, the next morning is fine. Make sure to keep each email distinct from the others by using the notes you wrote during the conversations.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF JOB INTERVIEWS & WHAT TO EXPECT

Before you start preparing for a job interview, you need to understand what type of interview it is that you are preparing for. Is it a case interview? A competency based interview? Or should you be readying yourself for a group interview?

Depending on what employers are looking to assess, they will use different types of interview techniques.
1. Behavioural Interviews
Behaviour-based interviewing (BBI) is used to assess how you have handled specific employment related situations in your previous job which will help them evaluate your future performance. The difference between a behaviour-based interview and a traditional job interview is that you are asked to describe, in detail, how you have dealt with a certain situation in the past that is similar to the ones you will be encountering in the role you are interviewing for.

Prepare: Examples of behaviour based interview questions
• “Give me an example of a time you faced a conflict while working on a team. How did you handle that?”
• “Tell me about a time you were under a lot of pressure. What was going on, and how did you get through it?”
• “Describe a time when you saw a problem and took the initiative to correct it rather than waiting for someone else to do it.”
You can find more behavioural based interview questions here.
2. Case Interviews
During a case interview you will be given a situation and asked how you would manage that specific situation and/or solve a business problem. BCG, Bain or McKinsey often use case interviews to assess candidates’ skills for management consulting positions.
Typically, it will most likely be a business scenario that you are going to encounter when working for the company.

Prepare: Case interview questions
In most instances, there isn’t necessarily one right answer or indeed one way of approaching a problem; interviewers are looking for a structured approach that is effectively communicated. It is about finding a way to gain insight, even when there is no obvious solution, and explaining effective processes that you would use for uncovering the underlying issues.

Example of Case Interview Scenarios
There are many resources available providing case interview examples that have been used by some of the biggest consulting firms.
3. Stress Interviews
A stress interview, as the name indicates, is used to assess how you respond to stress and under extreme pressure. In contrast to other interview types where hiring managers will make an effort to make you feel at ease, this is not the case during a stress interview.
During this type of interview hiring managers will be trying to gauge how well (or badly) you would handle certain stressful situations at work.
Prepare: Stress interview questions

Be prepared to answer questions that range from mildly disconcerting to aggressive, and even inappropriate. Some questions could be quite confrontational as well, such as:

• “Why were you fired from your last job?”
• “How do you think this interview is going?”
• “How would you deal with a co-worker that you caught stealing?”

The key to handling this type of interview is to remain calm. While it can be challenging to remain calm during this type of job interview as it feels like the interviewer is personally out to get you, there are a number of techniques that you can use to ace a stress interview, such as clarifying the question, requesting more details or telling a story that makes your point.
4. Competency Based Interviews
Competency based interviews are also known as “structured interviews” and are used by hiring managers to assess your soft skills and interpersonal competencies. The skills and competencies you are assessed against vary depending on the position you are interviewing for. Skills and competencies you might be asked to demonstrate are:
• Communication
• Decisiveness
• Leadership
• Team work
• Resilience
Hiring managers will be asking you questions in relation to your behaviour in specific circumstances which you should back up with examples.
Prepare: Example interview questions
• “Which change of job did you find the most difficult to make?”
• “Tell us about a situation where your communication skills made a difference to a situation.”
• “How do you feel writing a report differs from preparing an oral presentation?”
5. Group Interviews
As the name indicates, this type of job interview means multiple candidates are being interviewed at the same time and is often used if the company is hiring for more than one position.
Prepare: Examples of group interview questions

Below are some of the Group Interview Questions Google Hire suggest hiring managers ask during this an interview with multiple attendees:
• “Why do you want to work for our company?”
• “In five minutes, explain something that is complicated but that you know well.”
• “Describe a mistake you made at your last job & how you resolved it.”
6. Panel Interviews
During a panel interview, you will be interviewed by multiple interviewers from the same organisation and/or an external company. The goal of this type of interview is to minimise the risk of a bad hire.

Prepare: Panel interview questions
Panel interview questions will vary depending on the company and the position you are applying for. These can be questions such as:
• “How would a colleague describe you?”
• “Why do you want to work for us?”
• “Why should we hire you?”
However, you might be asked behavioural and/or competency based questions as well. For in-depth interview questions that you can expect in a panel interview, you might want to consider preparing by reading the complete guide to panel interviews.

7. The Puzzle Interview
Google and other highly competitive companies have been known to ask “puzzle” questions, like, “How many people are using Facebook in San Francisco at 2:30 PM on a Friday?” Seems random, but your interviewer wants to determine how quickly you can think on your feet, how you’ll approach a difficult situation, and how you can make progress in the face of a challenge.

8. Video & Remote Interviews
Video and remote interviews, when the applicant and interviewer are separated by distance, have become much more common. Video interviews can either be with the hiring manager or a recruiter and they can be either in person or ‘on demand’. On demand means you will record your responses to a number of interview questions for the hiring manager to review.
Interviewing in this way allows the hiring organisation to tap into a wider, more diverse pool of talent.
Prepare: Setting up for a video interview
Remote interviews come with their own challenges and you want to make sure you’re literally ‘set up’ the best way possible to ensure your interview runs smoothly without any easily avoidable glitches.
• Do a trial run (is the link working? Have you downloaded the right software?)
• Check your webcam and microphone (is the video clear and can your voice be easily heard?)
• Check your background (what does your background look like? Have you removed anything that looks cluttered or unprofessional?)

Remote interview attire – Be presentable

There’s a good chance you won’t need to stand up during this interview type. However, it’s better to be safe than sorry. Make sure you are dressed appropriately; it’s important to get into the same mindset as if you were going into the offices for your interview.
9. Phone Interviews
Phone interviews can often be one of the first steps in your interview process. More and more, companies are carrying out pre-interview telephone screening before inviting the person for a face-to-face interview, so it’s crucial you are fully prepared to speak over the phone.

Prepare: Phone interview behaviour

• Cut out all distractions (find a quiet place, have your materials nearby for easy access)
• Speak clearly (take a break between the questions and think about what you want to say)
• Listen and do not dominate the conversation (ask questions about the job that weren’t covered in the job posting)
Below are some questions that you can prepare for in advance of a phone screening:

• “Tell me about yourself and your experience.”
• “Why do you want to work at this company in particular?”
• “Can you share any experience of when you managed a team?”
10. Informal & Lunch Interviews
Hiring managers may begin the screening process with a relaxed, informal conversation instead of a formal interview. This is more of a casual discussion than a typical job interview. On a similar note, a chat over a cup of coffee is another less formal type of job interview.
Lunch interviews differ drastically from other interview types as the interview takes place over a meal. Besides worrying about what interview questions you should be prepared for, there are a number of additional considerations. What should you order which isn’t going to be messy to eat? How are you going to talk about your professional achievements while trying to eat?

Prepare: How to get ready for a restaurant interview

The interviewer will be watching how you interact with the host, the manner in which you address the serving staff and other people in the restaurant. It goes without saying that you should always be polite, but in this situation you need to be mindful that you’re being observed, so make sure you are courteous to everyone!
Given their very nature, lunch interviews are more casual than office setting interviews so you will need to be prepared to keep up a good conversation – when preparing for the more technical side of the interview, you should dedicate a bit of time to scrubbing up on your small talk. Still, it’s crucial to avoid certain topics such as politics or religion; weather and holiday plans are safe.
11. The Working Interview
In some industries—writing, engineering, or even sales—you may be asked to complete an actual job task as part of the interview. Basically, your interviewers don’t want you to tell them you can do the job, they want to see it. Don’t panic: If you go in prepared, this is your chance to shine.
12. On the Spot Interview
Sometimes you’ll be expected to do an on the spot interview. For example, you may turn in your application and be asked to do an interview right away. Or when an organization (typically retail or hospitality) announces they will be holding open interviews on a specific date. In situations like these, hiring personnel use on-the-spot interviews to screen applicants and immediately decide who should and should not be included in the next step of the recruiting process.

Other types of interviews

Mock Interviews
A mock interview gives you the opportunity to practice for the ‘real’ job interview. You can practice mock interviews with a career coach, counsellor or a recruitment consultant. For example, at Morgan McKinley we provide ‘interview PREP’ to all our candidates. PREP stands for Prepare, Review, Evaluate and Perfect.

During PREP we will give you insights into the types of questions that a particular hiring organisation may ask, as well as some insights into the varying requirements of certain individual hiring managers. Every hiring manager will have a different interview approach and the more you are prepared, the better the outcome is likely to be!

Exit Interviews
Exit interviews are the opposite of a job interview. An exit interview is the type of interview you have if you decide to leave a company and/ or are being let go.
Companies conduct these types of interviews to get feedback on the job you have left and to gain a better understanding of how employees perceive the organisation as a whole. In short, exit interviews allow a company to continuously improve its workplace culture and optimise relations with the workforce.

Prepare: Exit interview questions
Some of the questions you might be asked are:
• “Was the company’s benefits package sufficient?”
• “Did you receive enough training to do the job effectively?”
• “What did you like least about working for the company?”
• “What did you like best about your job?”
• “Why are you leaving your job?”
Preparing for Interviews
As you can see, interviews come in all forms. However, they all have one thing in common: preparation is the key to success. An effective way to prepare is to use the STAR format:

S – Situation
T – Task
A – Action(s)
R – Result(s)
For the interview Situation you really want to “set the table”; give them all the important information.
Task is for what you’re looking to achieve or what you’re looking to remedy given the situation – it’s reiterating, clearly, to give the interviewer a direction to the “story”.

The Action(s) that you take are the meat of the answer. You want to specifically mention steps that you, yourself, took to deliver on the task.

Result is the dessert, it’s where you leave the interviewer nodding, smiling, and pencilling in your start date. The key is to provide tangible impacts of your work.

Module Developed by: Baba Alexander

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